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In 1967, Yarbus presented qualitative data from one observer showing that the patterns of eye movements were dramatically affected by an observer's task, suggesting that complex mental states could be inferred from scan paths. The strong claim of this very influential finding has never been rigorously tested. Our observers viewed photographs for 10s each.(More)
Programs that monitor local, national, and regional levels of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance inform treatment guidelines and provide feedback on the success of HIV-1 treatment and prevention programs. To accurately compare transmitted drug resistance rates across geographic regions and times, the World Health Organization has recommended the adoption of(More)
BACKGROUND The HIV-1 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI)-resistance mutation, K65R confers intermediate to high-level resistance to the NRTIs abacavir, didanosine, emtricitabine, lamivudine, and tenofovir; and low-level resistance to stavudine. Several lines of evidence suggest that K65R is more common in HIV-1 subtype C than subtype B viruses. METHODS AND(More)
Interpreting the results of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genotypic drug-resistance tests is one of the most difficult tasks facing clinicians caring for HIV-1-infected patients. There are many drug-resistance mutations, and they arise in complex patterns that cause varying levels of drug resistance. In addition, HIV-1 exists in vivo as(More)
Despite the high degree of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) mutation in the setting of antiretroviral therapy, the spectrum of possible virus variants appears to be limited by patterns of amino acid covariation. We analyzed patterns of amino acid covariation in protease and RT sequences from more than 7,000 persons infected with HIV-1 subtype B(More)
UNLABELLED The calibrated population resistance (CPR) tool is a web-accessible program for performing standardized genotypic estimation of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance. The program is linked to the Stanford HIV drug resistance database and can additionally perform viral genotyping and algorithmic estimation of resistance to specific antiretroviral(More)
HIV-1 integrase is the third enzymatic target of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. However, few data have been published on the distribution of naturally occurring amino acid variation in this enzyme. We therefore characterized the distribution of integrase variants among more than 1,800 published group M HIV-1 isolates from more than 1,500 integrase inhibitor(More)
OBJECTIVES South Africa's national antiretroviral (ARV) treatment program expanded in 2010 to include the nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NRTI) tenofovir (TDF) for adults and abacavir (ABC) for children. We investigated the associated changes in genotypic drug resistance patterns in patients with first-line ARV treatment failure since the(More)
The Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database hosts a freely available online genotypic resistance interpretation system called HIVdb to help clinicians and laboratories interpret HIV-1 genotypic resistance tests. These tests are designed to assess susceptibility to nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and NNRTI), protease(More)
Eleven protease mutations have been associated with reduced susceptibility to darunavir (DRV). We examined the prevalence and covariates of these mutations in 2 populations. Thirty percent of 1175 Northern California patients and 24% of 2744 non-California patients in the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database had viruses with 1 or more mutations associated(More)