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In 1967, Yarbus presented qualitative data from one observer showing that the patterns of eye movements were dramatically affected by an observer's task, suggesting that complex mental states could be inferred from scan paths. The strong claim of this very influential finding has never been rigorously tested. Our observers viewed photographs for 10s each.(More)
Programs that monitor local, national, and regional levels of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance inform treatment guidelines and provide feedback on the success of HIV-1 treatment and prevention programs. To accurately compare transmitted drug resistance rates across geographic regions and times, the World Health Organization has recommended the adoption of(More)
Interpreting the results of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genotypic drug-resistance tests is one of the most difficult tasks facing clinicians caring for HIV-1-infected patients. There are many drug-resistance mutations, and they arise in complex patterns that cause varying levels of drug resistance. In addition, HIV-1 exists in vivo as(More)
Despite the high degree of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) mutation in the setting of antiretroviral therapy, the spectrum of possible virus variants appears to be limited by patterns of amino acid covariation. We analyzed patterns of amino acid covariation in protease and RT sequences from more than 7,000 persons infected with HIV-1 subtype B(More)
UNLABELLED The calibrated population resistance (CPR) tool is a web-accessible program for performing standardized genotypic estimation of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance. The program is linked to the Stanford HIV drug resistance database and can additionally perform viral genotyping and algorithmic estimation of resistance to specific antiretroviral(More)
HIV-1 integrase is the third enzymatic target of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. However, few data have been published on the distribution of naturally occurring amino acid variation in this enzyme. We therefore characterized the distribution of integrase variants among more than 1,800 published group M HIV-1 isolates from more than 1,500 integrase inhibitor(More)
BACKGROUND The HIV-1 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI)-resistance mutation, K65R confers intermediate to high-level resistance to the NRTIs abacavir, didanosine, emtricitabine, lamivudine, and tenofovir; and low-level resistance to stavudine. Several lines of evidence suggest that K65R is more common in HIV-1 subtype C than subtype B viruses. METHODS AND(More)
OBJECTIVES South Africa's national antiretroviral (ARV) treatment program expanded in 2010 to include the nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NRTI) tenofovir (TDF) for adults and abacavir (ABC) for children. We investigated the associated changes in genotypic drug resistance patterns in patients with first-line ARV treatment failure since the(More)
  • Alonzo Kelly, Matt Mason, Tony Stentz, Steve Lavalle, Ross Knepper, Tom Howard +43 others
  • 2012
Robot motion planning with differential constraints has received a great deal of attention in the last few decades, yet it still remains a challenging problem. Among a number of reasons, three stand out. First, the differential constraints that most physical robots exhibit render the coupling between the control and state spaces quite complicated. Second,(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Hepatitis C virus (HCV) variants that confer resistance to direct-acting-antiviral agents (DAA) have been detected by standard sequencing technology in genotype (G) 1 viruses from DAA-naive patients. It has recently been shown that virological response rates are higher and breakthrough rates are lower in G1b infected patients than(More)