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Large particles containing nitric acid (HNO3) were observed in the 1999/2000 Arctic winter stratosphere. These in situ observations were made over a large altitude range (16 to 21 kilometers) and horizontal extent (1800 kilometers) on several airborne sampling flights during a period of several weeks. With diameters of 10 to 20 micrometers, these(More)
3-Hydroxyoxindoles are common structural motifs found in a vast array of natural and biologically active molecules. Most catalytic methods for the asymmetric syntheses of these compounds require the use of transition-metal catalysts. In contrast, alternative catalytic procedures involving organocatalysis are scarce. Herein we disclose a novel(More)
Direct asymmetric catalytic aldol reactions have been successfully performed using aldehydes and unmodified ketones together with commercially available chiral cyclic secondary amines as catalysts. Structure-based catalyst screening identified L-proline and 5,5-dimethyl thiazolidinium-4-carboxylate (DMTC) as the most powerful amino acid catalysts for the(More)
An enantioselective α-amination of aryl oxindoles catalyzed by a dimeric quinidine has been developed. The reaction is general, broad in substrate scope, and affords the desired products in good yields with good to excellent enantioselectivities. This study provides the first examples of a general organocatalytic method for the creation of(More)
[1] Large (>2 mm diameter) HNO 3-containing polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles were measured in situ by the NOAA NO y instrument on board the NASA ER-2 aircraft during seven flights in the 1999/2000 Arctic winter vortex. Here we discuss the detection of these large PSC particles, their spatial distribution, the ambient conditions under which they(More)
Oxindoles and their indoline derivatives are common structural motifs found in a wide array of natural and biologically active molecules. Most catalytic methods for the asymmetric syntheses of these compounds rely heavily on the use of transition-metal catalysts. In contrast, alternative catalytic procedures involving organocatalysis are scarce. Herein we(More)
Optically thin cirrus near the tropical tropopause regulate the humidity of air entering the stratosphere, which in turn has a strong influence on the Earth's radiation budget and climate. Recent high-altitude, unmanned aircraft measurements provide evidence for two distinct classes of cirrus formed in the tropical tropopause region: (i) vertically(More)
Measurements of aerosol, N 2 O and OCS made in the Northern Hemisphere below 21 km altitude following the eruption of Pinatubo are presented and analyzed. After September 1999, the oxidation of OCS and the sedimentation of particles in the extra-tropical overworld maintain the aerosol in a steady state. This analysis empirically 5 links precursor gas to(More)