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In humans functionally mature FOXP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells can be found already in the fetus, but the kinetics of their maturation is still unknown. Here, we show that from birth to until 10 years of age the thymic production of FOXP3(+) Treg cells is very stable and correlates with T-lymphopoiesis in general. The level of FOXP3 expression in the(More)
Dasatinib, a broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), predominantly targets BCR-ABL and SRC oncoproteins and also inhibits off-target kinases, which may result in unexpected drug responses. We identified 22 patients with marked lymphoproliferation in blood while on dasatinib therapy. Clonality and immunophenotype were analyzed and related clinical(More)
Puumala virus (PUUV) is a hantavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), which is an important public health problem in large parts of Europe. We examined the memory cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in 13 Finnish individuals who had HFRS between 1984 and 1995. In seven of these donors, we detected virus-specific CTL responses(More)
Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a monogenic recessive disease characterized by autoimmunity against multiple tissues, offers a unique possibility to study the breakdown of self-tolerance in humans. It is caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE), which encodes a transcriptional regulator. Work using(More)
Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy - candidiasis - ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is caused by mutations in the Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene and is associated with neutralizing anti-cytokine autoantibodies. We have used an in vivo challenge model to analyze antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated patients and(More)
Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a monogenic autoimmune disease that is caused by mutations in the AIRE gene. Murine studies have linked AIRE to thymocyte selection and peripheral deletional tolerance, but the pathogenesis of the human disease remains unclear. In this study, we show that APECED patients have(More)
BACKGROUND Cells of the innate immune system regulate both adaptive immune responses and the maintenance of tolerance, especially in the gut. However, relatively little is known about the effects of complement on lymphocyte homeostasis. OBJECTIVE This study explored complement C3 deficiency in mice and human subjects for its effect on intestinal(More)
Loss-of-function mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) gene cause a rare inherited form of autoimmune disease, autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy, also known as autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1. The patients suffer from multiple endocrine deficiencies, the most common manifestations being hypoparathyroidism,(More)
The pathogenetic mechanisms of organ-specific autoimmune diseases remain obscured by the complexity of the genetic and environmental factors participating in the breakdown of tolerance. A unique opportunity to study the pathogenesis of human autoimmunity is provided by autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a rare inherited(More)
Lack of allelic exclusion in the T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha locus gives rise to 2 different TCRs in 10% to 30% of all mature T cells, but the significance of such dual specificity remains controversial. Here we show that human CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells express 2 distinct Valpha chains and thus 2 TCRs at least 3 times as often as other T cells.(More)