Tommaso Toffoli

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Ordinary crystallography deals with regular, discrete, static arrangements in space. Of course, dynamic considerations— and thus the additional dimension of time—must be introduced when one studies the origin of crystals (since they are emergent structures) and their physical properties such as conductivity and compressibility. The space and time of the(More)
Based on extensive experience with concepts, theory, applications, and hardware and software implementations, we propose a canonical way to represent “programmable matter” structures such as cellular automata, lattice gases, and related fine-grained, uniform, massivelyparallel computational substrates. Our proposal is accompanied by an “exemplar” software(More)