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The metabolism of oxygen, although central to life, produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have been implicated in processes as diverse as cancer, cardiovascular disease and ageing. It has recently been shown that central nervous system stem cells and haematopoietic stem cells and early progenitors contain lower levels of ROS than their more mature(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Paneth cells contribute to the small intestinal niche of Lgr5(+) stem cells. Although the colon also contains Lgr5(+) stem cells, it does not contain Paneth cells. We investigated the existence of colonic Paneth-like cells that have a distinct transcriptional signature and support Lgr5(+) stem cells. METHODS We used multicolor(More)
Single-cell quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) combined with high-throughput arrays allows the analysis of gene expression profiles at a molecular level in approximately 11 h after cell sample collection. We present here a high-content microfluidic real-time platform as a powerful tool for comparatively investigating the regulation of developmental(More)
Interest in single-cell whole-transcriptome analysis is growing rapidly, especially for profiling rare or heterogeneous populations of cells. We compared commercially available single-cell RNA amplification methods with both microliter and nanoliter volumes, using sequence from bulk total RNA and multiplexed quantitative PCR as benchmarks to systematically(More)
Previous studies indicated that nonlinear properties of Gaussian distributed time series with long-range correlations, u(i), can be detected and quantified by studying the correlations in the magnitude series |u(i)|, the "volatility." However, the origin for this empirical observation still remains unclear and the exact relation between the correlations in(More)
Cancer is often viewed as a caricature of normal developmental processes, but the extent to which its cellular heterogeneity truly recapitulates multilineage differentiation processes of normal tissues remains unknown. Here we implement single-cell PCR gene-expression analysis to dissect the cellular composition of primary human normal colon and colon(More)
Methods for genomic analysis at single-cell resolution enable new understanding of complex biological phenomena. Single-cell techniques, ranging from flow cytometry and microfluidics to PCR and sequencing, are used to understand the cellular composition of complex tissues, find new microbial species and perform genome-wide haplotyping.
Biological systems often display modularity, in the sense that they can be decomposed into nearly independent subsystems. Recent studies have suggested that modular structure can spontaneously emerge if goals (environments) change over time, such that each new goal shares the same set of sub-problems with previous goals. Such modularly varying goals can(More)
We study the behavior of epidemic spreading in networks, and, in particular, scale free networks. We use the Susceptible–Infected–Removed (SIR) epidemiological model. We give simulation results for the dynamics of epidemic spreading. By mapping the model into a static bond-percolation model we derive analytical results for the total number of infected(More)