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Four jacalin cDNA clones (pSKcJA1, pSKcJA3, pSKcJA15, and pSKcJA17) have been obtained from an Artocarpus integrifolia (jackfruit) seed cDNA library. These clones share over 94% sequence homology, and their deduced polypeptide sequences confirm the existence of multiple jacalin isolectins in jackfruit seeds. The deduced amino acid sequences show that(More)
Field tests of corn co-expressing two new delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have demonstrated protection from root damage by western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte). The level of protection exceeds that provided by chemical insecticides. In the bacterium, these proteins form crystals during the sporulation phase of the(More)
The major proteinase activity in extracts of larval midguts from the southern corn rootworm (SCR), Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi, was identified as a cysteine proteinase that prefers substrates containing an arginine residue in the P1 position. Gelatin-zymogram analysis of the midgut proteinases indicated that the artificial diet-fed SCR, corn root-fed(More)
European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)) larvae (third instar) fed 0.05% w/w wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) in their diet for 72 h showed very little increase in body weight, whereas weight of control larvae increased nearly fourfold. Light and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that the morphology of the peritrophic membrane (PM)(More)
To identify the means by which phytohemagglutinin (PHA) exerts its toxicity on the potato leafhopper, four different methods (thick and semi-thin sectioning combined with immunofluorescent staining, in vitro receptor autoradiography, and immunoelectron microscopy) were used to elucidate the PHA target tissue, binding site, and its effects on this tissue.(More)
Catecholamines and related o-diphenols extracted from the cuticle and hemolymph of adult cockroaches during sclerotization and pigmentation of the cuticle were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC with electrochemical detection. At ecdysis, dopamine (DA) o-conjugates predominated in the hemolymph of Periplaneta americana, P. australasiae, P. fuliginosa, P.(More)
Cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric data are consistent with a process in which 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DOMA) is oxidized initially in a two-electron step to its corresponding o-benzoquinone. This species is unstable and undergoes the rate-determining loss of CO2 (k = 1.6 s-1 at pH 6 and 25 degrees C) to give an unobserved p-benzoquinone methide(More)
The lectin, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), has been shown to have a significant larvicidal effect on the European corn borer, a major insect pest of corn. In order to characterize this toxic effect, we have undertaken structure-function studies on WGA. To this extent, the effect of cyanogen bromide (CNBr) on the conformation, subunit interactions, and(More)
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