Tomas de Wouters

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The human gut microbiome is known to be associated with various human disorders, but a major challenge is to go beyond association studies and elucidate causalities. Mathematical modeling of the human gut microbiome at a genome scale is a useful tool to decipher microbe-microbe, diet-microbe and microbe-host interactions. Here, we describe the CASINO(More)
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate and propionate, are metabolic products of carbohydrate fermentation by the microbiota and constitute the main source of energy for host colonocytes. SCFAs are also important for gastrointestinal health, immunity, and host metabolism. Intestinally produced angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is a secreted(More)
AIMS To compare in vitro the inhibitory activity of four bacteriocin-producing Escherichia coli to a well-characterized panel of Salmonella strains, recently isolated from clinical cases in Switzerland. METHODS AND RESULTS A panel of 68 nontyphoidal Salmonella strains was characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis and susceptibility to(More)
Initial neonatal gut colonization is a crucial stage for developing a healthy physiology, beneficially influenced by breast-feeding. Breast milk has been shown not only to provide nutrients and bioactive immunological compounds, but also commensal bacteria, including gut-associated anaerobic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium species. Infant formulas are(More)
The impact of commensal bacteria in eukaryotic transcriptional regulation has increasingly been demonstrated over the last decades. A multitude of studies have shown direct effects of commensal bacteria from local transcriptional activity to systemic impact. The commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius is one of the early bacteria colonizing the oral(More)
The human gastrointestinal tract hosts more than 100 trillion bacteria and archaea, which together make up the gut microbiota. The amount of bacteria in the human gut outnumbers human cells by a factor of 10, but some finely tuned mechanisms allow these microorganisms to colonize and survive within the host in a mutual relationship. The human gut microbiota(More)
The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in modulation of mucosal immune responses. To seek interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and commensal bacteria, we screened 49 commensal strains for their capacity to modulate NF-κB. We used HT-29/kb-seap-25 and Caco-2/kb-seap-7 intestinal epithelial cells and monocyte-like THP-1 blue(More)
The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) comprises seven (sub)species classified as human and animal commensals, emerging opportunistic pathogens and food fermentative organisms. Changing taxonomy, shared habitats, natural competence and evidence for horizontal gene transfer pose difficulties for determining their phylogeny,(More)
Reporter bacteriophages for detection of pathogenic bacteria offer fast and sensitive screening for live bacterial targets. We present a novel strategy employing a gene encoding a hyperthermophilic enzyme, permitting the use of various substrates and assay formats. The celB gene from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus specifying an extremely(More)
Complex microbial ecosystems are increasingly studied through the use of metagenomics approaches. Overwhelming amounts of DNA sequence data are generated to describe the ecosystems, and allow to search for correlations between gene occurrence and clinical (e.g. in studies of the gut microbiota), physico-chemical (e.g. in studies of soil or water(More)