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Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially(More)
Antigen presentation to T cells by MHC molecules is essential for adaptive immune responses. To determine the exact position of a gene affecting expression of MHC molecules, we finely mapped a previously defined rat quantitative trait locus regulating MHC class II on microglia in an advanced intercross line. We identified a small interval including the gene(More)
BACKGROUND Teriflunomide is a new oral disease-modifying therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. METHODS We concluded a randomized trial involving 1088 patients with multiple sclerosis, 18 to 55 years of age, with a score of 0 to 5.5 on the Expanded Disability Status Scale and at least one relapse in the previous year or at least two relapses(More)
Axonal injury is considered the major cause of disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the underlying effector mechanisms are poorly understood. Starting with a proteomics-based approach, we identified neurofascin-specific autoantibodies in patients with MS. These autoantibodies recognize the native form of the extracellular domains of both(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, often disabling, disease of the central nervous system affecting more than 1 in 1,000 people in most western countries. The inflammatory lesions typical of multiple sclerosis show autoimmune features and depend partly on genetic factors. Of these genetic factors, only the HLA gene complex has been repeatedly confirmed to be(More)
Natalizumab is a highly effective immunomodulator in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Treatment with natalizumab has been associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by a pathogenic form of the normally benign JC virus (JCV). We searched PubMed and used current data from(More)
BACKGROUND Teriflunomide is an oral disease-modifying therapy approved for treatment of relapsing or relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We aimed to provide further evidence for the safety and efficacy of teriflunomide in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. METHODS This international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of tobacco smoking and Swedish snuff use on the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS A population-based case-control study was performed in Sweden, using incident cases of MS (902 cases and 1,855 controls). A case was defined as a subject from the study base who had received a(More)
BACKGROUND In previous studies, teriflunomide significantly reduced the annualised relapse rate (ARR) and disability progression. OBJECTIVE This phase 3, rater-blinded study (NCT00883337) compared teriflunomide with interferon-beta-1a (IFNβ-1a). METHODS Patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis were randomised (1:1:1) to oral teriflunomide 7-or 14 mg,(More)
Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802(More)