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OBJECTIVE Offspring of parents with severe mental illness (SMI; schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder) are at an increased risk of developing mental illness. We aimed to quantify the risk of mental disorders in offspring and determine whether increased risk extends beyond the disorder present in the parent. METHOD Meta-analyses of(More)
The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging(More)
BACKGROUND Numerous studies have observed that offspring of bipolar parents manifest a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders. We tested the hypothesis that in high risk offspring, bipolar disorder evolves in a predictable clinical sequence from non-specific (non-mood) to specific (mood) psychopathology. METHODS Offspring from well-characterized families(More)
Peat bogs have historically represented exceptional carbon (C) sinks because of their extremely low decomposition rates and consequent accumulation of plant remnants as peat. Among the factors favoring that peat accumulation, a major role is played by the chemical quality of plant litter itself, which is poor in nutrients and characterized by polyphenols(More)
OBJECTIVES Converging evidence suggests that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene Val66Met polymorphism affects brain structure. Yet the majority of studies have shown no effect of this polymorphism on hippocampal volumes, perhaps due to small effect size. METHODS We performed a meta-analysis of studies investigating the association between(More)
OBJECTIVE Hippocampal volume decrease associated with illness burden is among the most replicated findings in unipolar depression. The absence of hippocampal volume changes in most studies of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) may reflect neuroprotective effects of lithium (Li). METHODS We recruited 17 BD patients from specialized Li clinics, with at(More)
BACKGROUND Smaller hippocampal volumes relative to controls are among the most replicated neuroimaging findings in individuals with unipolar but not bipolar depression. Preserved hippocampal volumes in most studies of participants with bipolar disorder may reflect potential neuroprotective effects of lithium (Li). METHODS To investigate hippocampal(More)
BACKGROUND The amygdala plays an important role in the regulation of emotions and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Studies of amygdala volumes in mood disorders have been conflicting, with findings of increased, decreased and unchanged amygdala volumes in patients relative to controls. We present the largest meta-analysis of(More)
OBJECTIVE Bipolar disorders (BD) have a strong genetic underpinning, yet no biological vulnerability markers for BD have yet been identified. To test whether amygdala or hippocampal volumes represent an endophenotype for BD, we measured mesiotemporal volumes in young affected and unaffected relatives of patients with BD (high-risk design). METHOD(More)
The interaction between polarity at onset (PAO) and age at onset (AAO) appears to be important for interpreting results of previous analyses of AAO in bipolar disorder (BD). Using an admixture analysis, we examined independently the distributions of age at first depressive and hypomanic/manic episodes in 379 BD I and II patients. Subsequently, we examined(More)