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Hepcidin is a peptide hormone secreted by the liver in response to iron loading and inflammation. Decreased hepcidin leads to tissue iron overload, whereas hepcidin overproduction leads to hypoferremia and the anemia of inflammation. Ferroportin is an iron exporter present on the surface of absorptive enterocytes, macrophages, hepatocytes, and placental(More)
The production of natural antibiotic peptides has emerged as an important mechanism of innate immunity in plants and animals. Defensins are diverse members of a large family of antimicrobial peptides, contributing to the antimicrobial action of granulocytes, mucosal host defence in the small intestine and epithelial host defence in the skin and elsewhere.(More)
Hypoferremia is a common response to systemic infections or generalized inflammatory disorders. In mouse models, the development of hypoferremia during inflammation requires hepcidin, an iron regulatory peptide hormone produced in the liver, but the inflammatory signals that regulate hepcidin are largely unknown. Our studies in human liver cell cultures,(More)
Cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides are abundant in animal and plant tissues involved in host defense. In insects, most are synthesized in the fat body, an organ analogous to the liver of vertebrates. From human urine, we characterized a cysteine-rich peptide with three forms differing by amino-terminal truncation, and we named it hepcidin (Hepc) because(More)
Hepcidin is a liver-made peptide proposed to be a central regulator of intestinal iron absorption and iron recycling by macrophages. In animal models, hepcidin is induced by inflammation and iron loading, but its regulation in humans has not been studied. We report that urinary excretion of hepcidin was greatly increased in patients with iron overload,(More)
Juvenile hemochromatosis is an early-onset autosomal recessive disorder of iron overload resulting in cardiomyopathy, diabetes and hypogonadism that presents in the teens and early 20s (refs. 1,2). Juvenile hemochromatosis has previously been linked to the centromeric region of chromosome 1q (refs. 3-6), a region that is incomplete in the human genome(More)
Despite fluctuations in dietary iron intake and intermittent losses through bleeding, the plasma iron concentrations in humans remain stable at 10-30 μM. While most of the iron entering blood plasma comes from recycling, appropriate amount of iron is absorbed from the diet to compensate for losses and maintain nontoxic amounts in stores. Plasma iron(More)
The intestinal epithelium forms a physical barrier to limit access of enteric microbes to the host and contributes to innate host defense by producing effector molecules against luminal microbes. To further define the role of the intestinal epithelium in antimicrobial host defense, we analyzed the expression, regulation, and production of two antimicrobial(More)
Human hepcidin, a 25-amino acid peptide made by hepatocytes, may be a new mediator of innate immunity and the long-sought iron-regulatory hormone. The synthesis of hepcidin is greatly stimulated by inflammation or by iron overload. Evidence from transgenic mouse models indicates that hepcidin is the predominant negative regulator of iron absorption in the(More)
Under evolutionary pressure to counter the toxicity of iron and to maintain adequate iron supply for hemoglobin synthesis and essential metabolic functions, humans and other vertebrates have effective mechanisms to conserve iron and to regulate its concentration, storage, and distribution in tissues. The iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin, first described 10(More)