Tomas G M Hökfelt

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Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the endogenous melanocortin receptor antagonist, agouti gene-related protein (AGRP), coexist in the arcuate nucleus, and both exert orexigenic effects. The present study aimed primarily at determining the brain distribution of AGRP. AGRP mRNA-expressing cells were limited to the arcuate nucleus, representing a major subpopulation(More)
Ischemic stroke is the most common life-threatening neurological disease and has limited therapeutic options. One component of ischemic neuronal death is inflammation. Here we show that doxycycline and minocycline, which are broad-spectrum antibiotics and have antiinflammatory effects independent of their antimicrobial activity, protect hippocampal neurons(More)
Following peripheral axotomy, long-lasting changes in the expression of neuropeptides and their receptors in primary sensory neurons are observed. These changes involve the downregulation of the excitatory peptides substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide and the upregulation of the inhibitory peptides neuropeptide tyrosine and galanin, resulting in(More)
Galanin is a 29-aa neuropeptide with a complex role in pain processing. Several galanin receptor subtypes are present in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord with a differential distribution. Here, we describe a generation of a specific galanin R2 (GalR2) agonist, AR-M1896, and its application in studies of a rat neuropathic pain model (Bennett). The results(More)
The L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia were studied in untreated rats and rats subjected to unilateral transection of the sciatic nerve, using the indirect immunofluorescence technique and antibodies to the peptide galanin (GAL). In control rats only low numbers of small ganglion cells contained GAL-like immunoreactivity (LI). After axotomy a marked increase in(More)
The present article provides a brief overview of various aspects on neuropeptides, emphasizing their multitude and their wide distribution in both the peripheral and central nervous system. Interestingly, neuropeptides are also expressed in various types of glial cells under normal and experimental conditions. The recent identification of, often multiple,(More)
The localization of galanin (GAL) immunoreactive (IR) neuronal structures in the rat central nervous system has been investigated by using the indirect immunofluorescence technique. GAL-IR structures were seen in high concentrations in the hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, and spinal cord. Less extensive systems were detected in the telencephalon, thalamus,(More)
The localization and distribution of somatostatin (growth hormone release-inhibiting hormone; somatotropin release-inhibiting factor) have been studied with the indirect immunofluorescence technique of Coons and collaborators and the immunoperoxidase method of Sternberger and coworkers using specific and well-characterized antibodies to somatostatin,(More)
Here we describe a novel mechanism for plasma membrane insertion of the delta opioid receptor (DOR). In small dorsal root ganglion neurons, only low levels of DORs are present on the cell surface, in contrast to high levels of intracellular DORs mainly associated with vesicles containing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Activation of surface DORs(More)
Cells in the lateral hypothalamus and in the arcuate nucleus play prominent roles in the central control of food intake; however, a neurochemical link connecting these potential components of a hypothalamic circuitry regulating energy metabolism remains to be established. In the present study, the topographical relationship between cells expressing mRNAs(More)