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The membrane-associated alphavirus RNA replication complex contains four virus-encoded subunits, the nonstructural proteins nsP1 to nsP4. Semliki Forest virus (SFV) nsP1 is hydrophobically modified by palmitoylation of cysteines 418 to 420. Here we show that Sindbis virus nsP1 is also palmitoylated on the same site (cysteine 420). When mutations preventing(More)
N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) mutations cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4D (CMT4D). However, the cellular function of NDRG1 and how it causes CMT4D are poorly understood. We report that NDRG1 silencing in epithelial cells results in decreased uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) due to reduced LDL receptor (LDLR) abundance at the(More)
We have previously shown that sphingosine inhibits depolarisation-induced calcium influx through voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs) in GH(4)C(1) cells, whereas sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) does not. In the present study we investigated whether sphingosine kinase modulates VOCC activity in GH(4)C(1) cells by removing inhibitory sphingosine.(More)
Sphingomyelin derivatives modulate a multitude of cellular processes, including the regulation of [Ca2+]i (the intracellular free calcium concentration). Previous studies have shown that these metabolites often inhibit calcium entry through VOCCs (voltage-operated calcium channels). In the present study, we show that, in pituitary GH4C1 cells, C1P(More)
BACKGROUND Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that regulates a multitude of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, survival, migration and angiogenesis. S1P mediates its effects either by signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or through an intracellular mode of action. In this study, we have investigated the(More)
RATIONALE The synthetic sphingosine analog FTY720 is undergoing clinical trials as an immunomodulatory compound, acting primarily via sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor activation. Sphingolipid and cholesterol homeostasis are closely connected but whether FTY720 affects atherogenesis in humans is not known. OBJECTIVE We examined the effects of FTY720 on the(More)
Mammalian cells acquire cholesterol, a major membrane constituent, via low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake. However, the mechanisms by which LDL cholesterol reaches the plasma membrane (PM) have remained obscure. Here, we applied LDL labeled with BODIPY cholesteryl linoleate to identify this pathway in living cells. The egress of BODIPY cholesterol (BC)(More)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) induces migration of the human thyroid follicular carcinoma cell line ML-1 by activation of S1P(1) and S1P(3) receptors, G(i) proteins, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway. Because sphingosine kinase isoform 1 (SK) recently has been implicated as an oncogene in various cancer cell systems, we investigated the(More)
Intracellular pathways leading to neuronal degeneration are poorly understood in the juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL, Batten disease), caused by mutations in the CLN3 gene. To elucidate the early pathology, we carried out comparative global transcript profiling of the embryonic, primary cultures of the Cln3-/- mouse neurons. Statistical and(More)
Eukaryotic cells can synthesize thousands of different lipid molecules that are incorporated into their membranes. This involves the activity of hundreds of enzymes with the task of creating lipid diversity. In addition, there are several, typically redundant, mechanisms to transport lipids from their site of synthesis to other cellular membranes.(More)