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Since the etiologies and clinical outcomes of bacteremia in children with Plasmodium falciparum infections, particularly in areas of holoendemic malaria transmission, are largely unexplored, blood cultures and comprehensive clinical, laboratory, hematological, and nutritional parameters for malaria-infected children (aged 1 to 36 months, n = 585 patients)(More)
Severe malarial anemia (MA) is the primary manifestation of severe malaria among children in areas of holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission. Although overproduction of inflammatory-derived cytokines are implicated in the immunopathogenesis of severe MA, chemokines such as regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES, CCL5)(More)
Greater than 80% of malaria-related mortality occurs in sub-Saharan Africa due to infections with Plasmodium falciparum. The majority of P. falciparum-related mortality occurs in immune-naïve infants and young children, accounting for 18% of all deaths before five years of age. Clinical manifestations of severe falciparum malaria vary according to(More)
Protective immunity against Plasmodium falciparum is partially mediated through binding of malaria-specific IgG antibodies to Fcgamma receptors. Polymorphic variability in Fcgamma RIIa (H/R-131) is associated with differential binding of IgG subtypes and malaria disease outcomes. However, the role of Fcgamma RIIa-131 variability in conditioning(More)
OBJECTIVE Since the primary hematological complication in both pediatric HIV-1 and malaria is anemia, co-infection with these pathogens may promote life-threatening severe malarial anemia (SMA). The primary objective of the study was to determine if HIV-1 exposure [HIV-1(exp)] and/or HIV-1 infection [HIV-1(+)] increased the prevalence of SMA in children(More)
Malarial anemia (MA) is a multifactorial disease for which the complex etiological basis is only partially defined. The association of clinical, nutritional, demographic, and socioeconomic factors with parasitemia, anemia, and MA was determined for children presenting at a hospital in a holoendemic area of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in western(More)
Severe malarial anaemia (SMA) is a common complication of Plasmodium falciparum infections, resulting in mortality rates that may exceed 30% in paediatric populations residing in holoendemic transmission areas. One strategy for reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with SMA is to identify clinical predictors that can be readily recognized by(More)
Interleukin (IL)-1beta is a cytokine released as part of the innate immune response to Plasmodium falciparum. Because the role played by IL-1beta polymorphic variability in conditioning the immunopathogenesis of severe malarial anemia (SMA) remains undefined, relationships between IL-1beta promoter variants (-31C/T and -511A/G), SMA (hemoglobin [Hb] level(More)
Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a leading global cause of infectious disease burden. In areas in which P. falciparum transmission is holoendemic, such as western Kenya, severe malarial anemia (SMA) results in high rates of pediatric morbidity and mortality. Although the pathophysiological basis of SMA is multifactorial, we recently discovered that(More)
Plasmodium falciparum malaria is one of the leading global causes of morbidity and mortality with African children bearing the highest disease burden. Among the various severe disease sequelae common to falciparum malaria, severe malarial anemia (SMA) in pediatric populations accounts for the greatest degree of mortality. Although the patho-physiological(More)