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Greater than 80% of malaria-related mortality occurs in sub-Saharan Africa due to infections with Plasmodium falciparum. The majority of P. falciparum-related mortality occurs in immune-naïve infants and young children, accounting for 18% of all deaths before five years of age. Clinical manifestations of severe falciparum malaria vary according to(More)
Plasmodium falciparum malaria is one of the leading global causes of morbidity and mortality with African children bearing the highest disease burden. Among the various severe disease sequelae common to falciparum malaria, severe malarial anemia (SMA) in pediatric populations accounts for the greatest degree of mortality. Although the patho-physiological(More)
Since the etiologies and clinical outcomes of bacteremia in children with Plasmodium falciparum infections, particularly in areas of holoendemic malaria transmission, are largely unexplored, blood cultures and comprehensive clinical, laboratory, hematological, and nutritional parameters for malaria-infected children (aged 1 to 36 months, n = 585 patients)(More)
BACKGROUND Over the years, reports implicate improper anti-malarial use as a major contributor of morbidity and mortality amongst millions of residents in malaria endemic areas, Kenya included. However, there are limited reports on improper use of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) which is a first-line drug in the treatment of malaria in Kenya.(More)
Severe malarial anaemia (SMA) is a common complication of Plasmodium falciparum infections, resulting in mortality rates that may exceed 30% in paediatric populations residing in holoendemic transmission areas. One strategy for reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with SMA is to identify clinical predictors that can be readily recognized by(More)
OBJECTIVE Since the primary hematological complication in both pediatric HIV-1 and malaria is anemia, co-infection with these pathogens may promote life-threatening severe malarial anemia (SMA). The primary objective of the study was to determine if HIV-1 exposure [HIV-1(exp)] and/or HIV-1 infection [HIV-1(+)] increased the prevalence of SMA in children(More)
Malarial anemia (MA) is a multifactorial disease for which the complex etiological basis is only partially defined. The association of clinical, nutritional, demographic, and socioeconomic factors with parasitemia, anemia, and MA was determined for children presenting at a hospital in a holoendemic area of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in western(More)
Severe malarial anemia (MA) is the primary manifestation of severe malaria among children in areas of holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission. Although overproduction of inflammatory-derived cytokines are implicated in the immunopathogenesis of severe MA, chemokines such as regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES, CCL5)(More)
BACKGROUND Severe malarial anemia (SMA) resulting from Plasmodium falciparum infection is one of the leading causes of childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The innate immune mediator macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of SMA. METHODS To investigate the influence of MIF genetic variation on(More)
Severe malarial anemia (SMA), caused by Plasmodium falciparum infections, is one of the leading causes of childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the molecular determinants of SMA are largely undefined, dysregulation in host-derived inflammatory mediators influences disease severity. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an important(More)