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BACKGROUND Because of their known role as transcriptional regulators of key plant developmental processes, the diversification of MADS-box gene function is thought to be a major driving force in the developmental evolution of plants. Yet the function of some MADS-box gene subfamilies has remained elusive thus far. One such lineage, AGL6, has now been(More)
Polarized auxin transport is crucial for many developmental processes in flowering plants and requires the PIN-FORMED (PIN) family of auxin efflux carriers. However, the impact of polar auxin transport and PIN proteins on the development of non-seed plant species and green algal lineages is largely unknown. Using recently available sequence information from(More)
Impatiens and Marcgravia have striking morphological innovations associated with the flowers. One of the sepals in Impatiens is spurred and petaloid, while in Marcgravia the petals are fused into a cap and nectary cups are associated with the inflorescence. Balsaminaceae (Impatiens) and Marcgraviaceae have surprisingly been shown to be closely related,(More)
The emergence and radiation of multicellular land plants was driven by crucial innovations to their body plans. The directional transport of the phytohormone auxin represents a key, plant-specific mechanism for polarization and patterning in complex seed plants. Here, we show that already in the early diverging land plant lineage, as exemplified by the moss(More)
APETALA3 (AP3)/DEFICIENS (DEF) is a MADS-box transcription factor that is involved in establishing the identity of petal and stamen floral organs. The AP3/DEF gene lineage has been extensively examined throughout the angiosperms in order to better understand its role in floral diversity and evolution. As a result, a large number of cloned AP3/DEF(More)
Basal asterid families, and to a lesser extent the asterids as a whole, are characterized by a high variation in petal and stamen morphology. Moreover, the stamen number, the adnation of stamens to petals, and the degree of sympetaly vary considerably among basal asterid taxa. The B group genes, members of the APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) gene(More)
BACKGROUND Gene duplication has often been invoked as a key mechanism responsible for evolution of new morphologies. The floral homeotic B-group gene family has undergone a number of gene duplication events, and yet the functions of these genes appear to be largely conserved. However, detailed comparative analysis has indicated that such duplicate genes(More)
Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) is a structural phospholipid that can be phosphorylated into various lipid signaling molecules, designated polyphosphoinositides (PPIs). The reversible phosphorylation of PPIs on the 3, 4, or 5 position of inositol is performed by a set of organelle-specific kinases and phosphatases, and the characteristic head groups make(More)
Evolution of class B genes through gene duplication has been proposed as an evolutionary mechanism that contributed to the enormous floral diversity. Frameshift mutations are a likely mechanism to explain the divergent C-terminal sequences of MIKC gene subfamilies. So far, the inferences for frameshifts and selective pressures on the C-terminal domain are(More)
In order to establish a reference for analysis of the function of auxin and the auxin biosynthesis regulators SHORT INTERNODE/STYLISH (SHI/STY) during Physcomitrella patens reproductive development, we have described male (antheridial) and female(archegonial) development in detail, including temporal and positional information of organ initiation. This has(More)