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A challenging application of artificial intelligence systems involves the scheduling of traffic signals in multi-intersection vehicular networks. This paper introduces a novel use of a multi-agent system and reinforcement learning (RL) framework to obtain an efficient traffic signal control policy. The latter is aimed at minimising the average delay,(More)
There have been countless efforts directed toward efficiently controlling the flow of vehicular traffic through an intersection. This paper describes an algorithm designed for the signal control problem that employs concepts drawn from the field of packet switching in computer networks. The novel method proposed utilizes a maximal weight matching algorithm(More)
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Rhizobium galegae, a symbiotically nitrogen-fixing species of root-nodule bacteria, were isolated by the phenol-water method from strain HAMBI 1461, the LPS of which resembled enterobacterial smooth type LPS, and from strains HAMBI 1174 and HAMBI 1208, the LPSs of which resembled rough type LPS. The results of PAGE analysis of(More)
The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry , and the public in a manner that promotes public(More)
In the next millennium, traffic signal systems will need to address many issues, spanning a broad range of technical, social, and political boundaries. With the increase in urbanization and traffic congestion comes a greater demand to operate our roadway systems with maximum efficiency. As traffic volume continues to increase, roadway capacity will increase(More)
A significant amount of delay to transit vehicles in urban areas is caused by traffic signals. Implementation of signal priority has the potential to reduce control delay caused by traffic signals. The implementation of these systems requires engineering studies that address both transit and traffic signal operations. A comprehensive program requires(More)
Transit Signal Priority (TSP) is an operational strategy to facilitate the movement of transit vehicles through signalized intersections. It is typically done by giving transit vehicles an extended green or reduced red at signalized intersections under certain pre-defined conditions (e.g., late arriving buses only). This allows for more reliable travel(More)
The structure of the lipid A from S. typhimurium harboring the derepressed plasmids Col Ib is very similar: i, 1,4'-bis-phosphorylated-beta-1',6-linked glucosamine disaccharide forms a backbone of the lipid; ii, lipid preparations contain four residues of 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid at positions C3, C3' and the amide linked at C2, C2' and two free hydroxyl(More)