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The cumulative sum (CUSUM) procedure is a graphical method that is widely used for quality monitoring in industrial settings. More recently it has been used to monitor surgical outcomes whereby it 'signals' if sufficient evidence has accumulated that there has been a change in the surgical failure rate. A limitation of the standard CUSUM procedure in this(More)
Surgery and other invasive therapies are complex interventions, the assessment of which is challenged by factors that depend on operator, team, and setting, such as learning curves, quality variations, and perception of equipoise. We propose recommendations for the assessment of surgery based on a five-stage description of the surgical development process.(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Microemboli have been implicated in the etiology of neuropsychological deficits after cardiopulmonary bypass. This study examined the incidence of high-intensity transcranial signals (microemboli) and their relation to changes in neuropsychological performance after surgery. METHODS Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was used to(More)
The role of viruses in the genesis of both dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and acute myocarditis remains uncertain. Modern molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridisation are sensitive means of detecting viral genomic material in human myocardial tissue and may help to resolve the quest. Meta-analysis of the papers in the(More)
BACKGROUND The Randomized Intervention Treatment of Angina (RITA) trial compares initial policies of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in 1011 patients with angina. This report assesses the impact of these revascularization procedures on angina, quality of life (according to the Nottingham(More)
Research on surgical interventions is associated with several methodological and practical challenges of which few, if any, apply only to surgery. However, surgical evaluation is especially demanding because many of these challenges coincide. In this report, the second of three on surgical innovation and evaluation, we discuss obstacles related to the study(More)
BACKGROUND The effects of extra-pleural pneumonectomy (EPP) on survival and quality of life in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma have, to our knowledge, not been assessed in a randomised trial. We aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of patients who were randomly assigned to EPP or no EPP in the context of trimodal therapy in the Mesothelioma(More)
Surgical innovation is an important part of surgical practice. Its assessment is complex because of idiosyncrasies related to surgical practice, but necessary so that introduction and adoption of surgical innovations can derive from evidence-based principles rather than trial and error. A regulatory framework is also desirable to protect patients against(More)
BACKGROUND Conventional assessment of the outcome of cardiac surgery usually takes the form of retrospective mortality figures and, at best, indicates an average performance over time. Summary tables conceal good and bad runs, and without risk adjustment they are difficult to interpret. We developed a refinement of the cumulative sum method that weights(More)
To compare antibiotic regimens for their effectiveness in preventing or treating wound sepsis, well-defined criteria for outcome are needed. A method of assessing wound healing has been devised that defines carefully the characteristics to be considered and how they are to be awarded points. Objective criteria are also included in the assessment. Points are(More)