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Generating accurate in vitro intrinsic clearance data is an important aspect of predicting in vivo human clearance. Primary hepatocytes in suspension are routinely used to predict in vivo clearance; however, incubation times have typically been limited to 4-6 hours, which is not long enough to accurately evaluate the metabolic stability of slowly(More)
Pargyline, an antihypertensive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor, induces hepatic GSH depletion and hepatotoxicity in vivo in rats [E.G. De Master, H.W. Sumner, E. Kaplan, F. N. Shirota, H.T. Nagasawa, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 65 (1982) 390-401]. Propargyl alcohol (2-propyn-1-ol), because of its structural similarity to allyl alcohol, was thought to be(More)
The ability to reduce the peroxidase (myeloglobin/H2O2)-generated ABTS*+ [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation] has been used to rank the antioxidant activity of various agents including dietary flavonoids and chalcones. Surprisingly, we found that in the presence of catalytic concentrations of the phenol B-ring containing(More)
2,6-Diisopropylphenol (Propofol) is a short-acting intravenous anesthetic that is rapidly metabolized by glucuronidation and ring hydroxylation catalyzed by cytochrome P450. The goal of this research was to determine whether dietary monoterpene alcohols (MAs) could be used to prolong the anesthetic effect of propofol by inhibiting propofol metabolism in(More)
Many idiosyncratic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause GI, liver and bone marrow toxicity in some patients which results in GI bleeding/ulceration/fulminant hepatic failure/hepatitis or agranulocytosis/aplastic anemia. The toxic mechanisms proposed have been reviewed. Evidence is presented showing that idiosyncratic NSAID drugs form(More)
GSH was readily depleted by a flavonoid, H(2)O(2), and peroxidase mixture but the products formed were dependent on the redox potential of the flavonoid. Catalytic amounts of apigenin and naringenin but not kaempferol (flavonoids that contain a phenol B ring) when oxidized by H(2)O(2) and peroxidase co-oxidized GSH to GSSG via a thiyl radical which could be(More)
Rapid scavenging of the model stable radical cation, ABTS(*+), has been applied to screen for the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. The reaction follows two distinct phases. For compounds with a monophenolic B-ring there is a rapid initial phase of reduction of ABTS(*+) within 0.1 s with no further change in the subsequent 2.9 s. In contrast, compounds(More)
This review summarises current knowledge on the various molecular chemopreventive or therapeutic mechanisms that may be involved when the administration of flavonoids or polyphenols prevented chemical carcinogenesis in animal models. These mechanisms can be subdivided into the following: 1) the molecular mechanisms involved in preventing carcinogen(More)
Flavonoids containing phenol B rings, e.g. naringenin, naringin, hesperetin and apigenin, formed prooxidant metabolites that oxidised NADH upon oxidation by peroxidase/H2O2. Extensive oxygen uptake occurred which was proportional to the NADH oxidised and was increased up to twofold by superoxide dismutase. Only catalytic amounts of flavonoids and H2O2 were(More)
The potential inhibition of the major human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes by faldaprevir was evaluated both in vitro and in clinical studies (healthy volunteers and hepatitis C virus [HCV] genotype 1-infected patients). In vitro studies indicated that faldaprevir inhibited CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A, and was a weak-to-moderate inactivator of CYP3A4.(More)