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This review summarises current knowledge on the various molecular chemopreventive or therapeutic mechanisms that may be involved when the administration of flavonoids or polyphenols prevented chemical carcinogenesis in animal models. These mechanisms can be subdivided into the following: 1) the molecular mechanisms involved in preventing carcinogen(More)
Generating accurate in vitro intrinsic clearance data is an important aspect of predicting in vivo human clearance. Primary hepatocytes in suspension are routinely used to predict in vivo clearance; however, incubation times have typically been limited to 4-6 hours, which is not long enough to accurately evaluate the metabolic stability of slowly(More)
Flavonoids containing phenol B rings, e.g. naringenin, naringin, hesperetin and apigenin, formed prooxidant metabolites that oxidised NADH upon oxidation by peroxidase/H2O2. Extensive oxygen uptake occurred which was proportional to the NADH oxidised and was increased up to twofold by superoxide dismutase. Only catalytic amounts of flavonoids and H2O2 were(More)
GSH was readily depleted by a flavonoid, H(2)O(2), and peroxidase mixture but the products formed were dependent on the redox potential of the flavonoid. Catalytic amounts of apigenin and naringenin but not kaempferol (flavonoids that contain a phenol B ring) when oxidized by H(2)O(2) and peroxidase co-oxidized GSH to GSSG via a thiyl radical which could be(More)
The commonest mitochondrial diseases are probably those impairing the function of complex I of the respiratory electron transport chain. Such complex I impairment may contribute to various neurodegenerative disorders e.g. Parkinson's disease. In the following, using hepatocytes as a model cell, we have shown for the first time that the cytotoxicity caused(More)
Cytochrome P450 (P450) protein-protein interactions resulting in modulation of enzyme activities have been well documented using recombinant isoforms. This interaction has been less clearly demonstrated in a more physiologic in vitro system such as human hepatocytes. As an expansion of earlier work (Subramanian et al., 2010), in which recombinant CYP2C9(More)
Rapid scavenging of the model stable radical cation, ABTS(*+), has been applied to screen for the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. The reaction follows two distinct phases. For compounds with a monophenolic B-ring there is a rapid initial phase of reduction of ABTS(*+) within 0.1 s with no further change in the subsequent 2.9 s. In contrast, compounds(More)
Various phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3,4 and 5 inhibitors have been compared with glucagon for their effectiveness at increasing hepatocyte cAMP, glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Preincubation of isolated hepatocytes with PDE 3 and 4 inhibitors (50 μM) for 2 h induced significant increases in cellular cAMP level. The order of effectiveness was: glucagon(More)
Quinones are believed to induce their toxicity by two main mechanisms: oxygen activation by redox cycling and alkylation of essential macromolecules. The physicochemical parameters that underlie this activity have not been elucidated, although redox potential is believed to play a significant role. In this study, we have evaluated the cytotoxicity,(More)
Pargyline, an antihypertensive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor, induces hepatic GSH depletion and hepatotoxicity in vivo in rats [E.G. De Master, H.W. Sumner, E. Kaplan, F. N. Shirota, H.T. Nagasawa, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 65 (1982) 390-401]. Propargyl alcohol (2-propyn-1-ol), because of its structural similarity to allyl alcohol, was thought to be(More)