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Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are present in the endoplasmic reticulum of virtually every cell type and serve critical roles, including excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in muscle cells. In skeletal muscle the primary control of RyR-1 (the predominant skeletal RyR isoform) occurs via an interaction with plasmalemmal dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs), which(More)
  • T A Rando
  • 1989
The properties of voltage-dependent Na channels modified by veratridine (VTD) were studied in voltage-clamped nodes of Ranvier of the frog Rana pipiens. Two modes of gating of VTD-modified channels are described. The first, occurring on a time scale of milliseconds, is shown to be the transition of channels between a modified resting state and a modified(More)
The inhibition by saxitoxin (STX) of single Na channels incorporated into planar lipid bilayers and modified by batrachotoxin (BTX) previously has been shown to be voltage dependent (Krueger, B.K.,J.F. Worley, and R. J. French, 1983, Nature [Lond.], 303:172-175; Moczydlowski, E., S. Hall, S. S. Garber, G. S. Strichartz, and C. Miller, 1984, J. Gen.(More)
The neurotoxins that modify Na channels have actions that are characterized by different degrees of specificity (Table 2). These specificities can be correlated with their chemical properties. For example, guanidinium toxins, which are small charged ligands, appear only to "block" Na channels by binding to a site on the external surface. Peptide toxins,(More)
ecent advances in communications technology make it possible for manufacturers to transmit data to each other in fractions of a second. However, if these corporations do not use the same software tools, understanding of the data can be delayed for weeks or months while employees purchase and learn to use new tools. This article describes ongoing research(More)
The depolarization of frog sciatic nerves by the Na channel-activating toxins, batrachotoxin and veratridine, was studied using the sucrose-gap technique. To study the interaction between the activators and the gating processes of Na channels, we measured the depolarizations of unstimulated nerves, of nerves during repetitive stimulation, and of nerves(More)
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