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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs). We identify several novel mutated genes as well as complex rearrangements of signature receptors, including EGFR and PDGFRA. TERT promoter mutations are shown to correlate with elevated mRNA(More)
PURPOSE To determine the radiographic and clinical efficacy of stereotactic single dose radiosurgery (SRS) and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) as salvage therapy for glioblastoma (GBM) at recurrence. METHODS Thirty-six patients with pathologically proven recurrent GBM were treated with salvage reirradiation by either SRS or FSRT between(More)
The brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most lethal forms of human cancer. Here, we report that a small subset of GBMs (3.1%; 3 of 97 tumors examined) harbors oncogenic chromosomal translocations that fuse in-frame the tyrosine kinase coding domains of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genes (FGFR1 or FGFR3) to the transforming(More)
Glioblastomas (GBM), the most common and aggressive malignant astrocytic tumors, contain a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells (GSCs) that are implicated in therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence. Here, we study the expression and function of miR-137, a putative suppressor miRNA, in GBM and GSCs. We found that the expression of miR-137 was(More)
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP-7) is the only member of the IGFBP superfamily that binds strongly to insulin, suggesting that IGFBP-7 may have different functions from other IGFBPs. Unlike other IGFBPs, the expression and functions of IGFBP-7 in glioma tumors have not been reported. Using cDNA microarray analysis, we found that(More)
OBJECTIVE Since intratumoral heterogeneity of gliomas is not adequately reflected in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we sought to determine a correlation between different proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H MRSI) metabolic ratios and the degree of tumor infiltration in diffusely infiltrating gliomas. In this report, we(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Morphologic variations of disease are often linked to underlying molecular events and patient outcome, suggesting that quantitative morphometric analysis may provide further insight into disease mechanisms. In this paper a methodology for the subclassification of disease is developed using image analysis techniques. Morphologic(More)
Therapy development for adult diffuse glioma is hindered by incomplete knowledge of somatic glioma driving alterations and suboptimal disease classification. We defined the complete set of genes associated with 1,122 diffuse grade II-III-IV gliomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas and used molecular profiles to improve disease classification, identify molecular(More)
BACKGROUND The signal transduction pathways of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ras are both important in the growth of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We hypothesized that inhibition of both pathways would improve the survival time of patients with recurrent GBM. METHODS Patients with recurrent/progressive GBM with 0-2 prior chemotherapy regimens(More)