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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs). We identify several novel mutated genes as well as complex rearrangements of signature receptors, including EGFR and PDGFRA. TERT promoter mutations are shown to correlate with elevated mRNA(More)
Stem cell factor (SCF) is overexpressed by neurons following brain injury as well as by glioma cells; however, its role in gliomagenesis remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that SCF directly activates brain microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro and induces a potent angiogenic response in vivo. Primary human gliomas express SCF in a(More)
The brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most lethal forms of human cancer. Here, we report that a small subset of GBMs (3.1%; 3 of 97 tumors examined) harbors oncogenic chromosomal translocations that fuse in-frame the tyrosine kinase coding domains of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genes (FGFR1 or FGFR3) to the transforming(More)
PURPOSE To determine the radiographic and clinical efficacy of stereotactic single dose radiosurgery (SRS) and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) as salvage therapy for glioblastoma (GBM) at recurrence. METHODS Thirty-six patients with pathologically proven recurrent GBM were treated with salvage reirradiation by either SRS or FSRT between(More)
OBJECTIVE Since intratumoral heterogeneity of gliomas is not adequately reflected in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we sought to determine a correlation between different proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H MRSI) metabolic ratios and the degree of tumor infiltration in diffusely infiltrating gliomas. In this report, we(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebral radiation necrosis is a serious complication of radiation treatment for brain tumors. Therapeutic options include corticosteroids, anticoagulation and hyperbaric oxygen with limited efficacy. Bevacizumab, an antibody against VEGF had been reported to reduce edema in patients with suspected radiation necrosis. We retrospectively reviewed(More)
Therapy development for adult diffuse glioma is hindered by incomplete knowledge of somatic glioma driving alterations and suboptimal disease classification. We defined the complete set of genes associated with 1,122 diffuse grade II-III-IV gliomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas and used molecular profiles to improve disease classification, identify molecular(More)
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP-7) is the only member of the IGFBP superfamily that binds strongly to insulin, suggesting that IGFBP-7 may have different functions from other IGFBPs. Unlike other IGFBPs, the expression and functions of IGFBP-7 in glioma tumors have not been reported. Using cDNA microarray analysis, we found that(More)
Primary brain tumors are the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality in adults under the age of 54 years and the leading cause of cancer mortality in children in the United States. Therapy for the most common type of primary brain tumors, gliomas, remains suboptimal. The development of new and more effective treatments will likely require a better(More)