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The oncogene bcl-2 encodes a 26-kD protein localized to intracellular membranes, including the ER, mitochondria, and perinuclear membrane, but its mechanism of action is unknown. We have been investigating the hypothesis that Bcl-2 regulates the movement of calcium ions (Ca2+) through the ER membrane. Earlier findings in this laboratory indicated that Bcl-2(More)
The balance between regulatory and effector functions is important for maintaining efficient immune responses, while avoiding autoimmunity. The inflammatory skin disease psoriasis is sustained by the ongoing activation of pathogenic effector T cells. We found that a CD4(+) T lymphocyte subpopulation in peripheral blood, phenotypically CD25(high), CTLA-4(+),(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a condition frequently associated with esophagitis and motor abnormalities. Recent evidence suggests that proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6, may be implicated because they reduce esophageal muscle contractility, but these results derive from in vitro or animal models of(More)
Oxygen plays such a critical role in the central nervous system that a specialized mechanism of oxygen delivery to neurons is required. Reduced oxygen tension, or hypoxia, may have severe detrimental effects on neuronal cells. Several studies suggest that hypoxia can induce cellular adaptive responses that overcome apoptotic signals in order to minimize(More)
Rapidly evolving research examining the extended role of human beta-defensins (hBDs) in chemoattraction, innate immune-mediated response, and promotion of angiogenesis suggest that the collective effects of hBDs extend well beyond their antimicrobial mechanism(s). Indeed, the numerous basic cellular functions associated with hBDs demonstrate that these(More)
HIV-infected subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are susceptible to comorbid microbial infections in the oral cavity. We observed that primary oral epithelial cells (POECs) isolated from HIV+ subjects on HAART grow more slowly and are less innate immune responsive to microbial challenge when compared with POECs from normal subjects.(More)
Patients with psoriasis have systemic and vascular inflammation and are at increased risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death. However, the underlying mechanism(s) mediating the link between psoriasis and vascular disease is incompletely defined. This study sought to determine whether chronic skin-specific inflammation has the(More)
BACKGROUND The study tested the hypothesis that apoptosis can prevent and control growth of neoplastic cells. Previous studies in-vitro have shown that the pro-apoptotic P2X(7) receptor regulates growth of epithelial cells. The specific objective of the present study was to understand to what degree the P2X(7) system controls development and growth of skin(More)
The oral epithelium, the most abundant structural tissue lining the oral mucosa, is an important line of defense against infectious microorganisms. HIV infected subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are susceptible to comorbid viral, bacterial and fungal infections in the oral cavity. To provide an assessment of the molecular alterations(More)
BACKGROUND Elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (T(regs)) have been implicated in certain cancers. Depletion of T(regs) has been shown to increase anti-tumor immunity. T(regs) also play a critical role in the suppression of autoimmune responses. The study of T(regs) has been hampered by a lack of adequate surface markers. Leucine Rich Repeat Containing 32(More)