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Vertebrates and arthropods are both capable of load compensation during aimed limb movements, such as reaching and grooming. We measured the kinematics and activity of individual motoneurons in loaded and unloaded leg movements in an insect. To evaluate the role of active and passive musculoskeletal properties in aiming and load compensation, we used a(More)
Desert locusts show extreme phenotypic plasticity and can change reversibly between two phases that differ radically in morphology, physiology and behaviour. Solitarious locusts are cryptic in appearance and behaviour, walking slowly with the body held close to the ground. Gregarious locusts are conspicuous in appearance and much more active, walking(More)
The task of a multi-jointed limb making an aimed movement towards a target requires that the movement is regulated against external perturbations such as changing load. In particular, loading one part of a limb leads to altered static forces on all proximal segments, and to additional dynamic joint interaction forces when the limb moves. We have addressed(More)
We have developed and evaluated a new optical motion capture approach that is suitable for a wide range of studies in neuroethology and motor control. Based on the stochastic search algorithm of Simulated Annealing (SA), it utilizes a kinematic body model that includes joint angle constraints to reconstruct posture from an arbitrary number of views. Rather(More)
This report describes an inexpensive ramp generator which produces multiple ramp-and-hold stimuli ("staircase-type" wave forms). The output voltage is analogue and is, therefore, free of stepping artifacts characteristic of digital function generators. When coupled with a standard power amplifier and mechanical vibrator, this system is particularly suitable(More)
We present a multi-epoch quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the Type IIn SN 1994W, an event interpreted by Chugai et al. as stemming from the interaction between the ejecta of a SN and a 0.4 M ⊙ circumstellar shell ejected 1.5 yr before core collapse. During the brightening phase, our models suggest that the source of optical radiation is not unique,(More)
This paper describes the morphology and physiology of five types of local interneurons and three types of ascending intersegmental interneurons in the locust metathoracic ganglion that are points of convergence of sensory information from the wings. Four types of spiking local interneurons are members of a population with somata at the ventral midline. They(More)
Desert Locusts can change reversibly between solitarious and gregarious phases, which differ considerably in behaviour, morphology and physiology. The two phases show many behavioural differences including both overall levels of activity and the degree to which they are attracted or repulsed by conspecifics. Solitarious locusts perform infrequent bouts of(More)
  • Citation Hicken, Peter Malcolm, Saurabh Challis, Robert P Jha, Tom Kirshner, Maryam Matheson +77 others
  • 2009
Article is made available in accordance with the publisher's policy and may be subject to US copyright law. Please refer to the publisher's site for terms of use. The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. ABSTRACT We present multiband photometry of 185 type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia),(More)
Neuroscientists have a vast array of instruments at their disposal to examine the function of neural tissue. For example, to investigate visuomotor integration, one can combine in vivo intracellular voltage recordings with visual presentations, focal stimulation of nerves and behavioural observation. While this technological diversity holds enormous(More)