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We demonstrate pronounced differences in the visual system of a polyphenic locust species that can change reversibly between two forms (phases), which vary in morphology and behavior. At low population densities, individuals of Schistocerca gregaria develop into the solitarious phase, are cryptic, and tend to avoid other locusts. At high densities,(More)
Grooming responses are movements of a multi-jointed limb that are targeted toward a stimulus site on the body. To be successful, they require a continuous transformation of stimulus location into a corresponding motor pattern or selection and blending of a subset of cardinal motor patterns. Tactile stimulation of one forewing of a locust elicits(More)
Desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) can undergo a profound transformation between solitarious and gregarious forms, which involves widespread changes in behaviour, physiology and morphology. This phase change is triggered by the presence or absence of other locusts and occurs over a timescale ranging from hours, for some behaviours to change, to(More)
We characterized homeostatic plasticity at an identified sensory-motor synapse in an insect, which maintains constant levels of motor drive as locusts transform from their solitarious phase to their gregarious swarming phase. The same mechanism produces behaviorally relevant changes in response timing that can be understood in the context of an animal's(More)
We present constraints on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, w = P/(ρc 2), using 60 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the ESSENCE su-pernova survey. We derive a set of constraints on the nature of the dark energy assuming a flat Universe. By including constraints on (Ω M , w) from baryon acoustic oscillations, we obtain a value for a static(More)
Relatively little is still known about the sense of taste, or contact chemoreception, compared with other sensory modalities, despite its importance to many aspects of animal behaviour. The central projections of the sensory neurons from bimodal contact chemoreceptors (basiconic sensilla) were compared with those from mechanosensory tactile hairs located on(More)
The chordotonal organ at the femorotibial joint of a locust hind leg monitors extension and flexion movements of the tibia. During evoked or imposed movements of this joint the central terminals of afferent neurons from the chordotonal organ receive depolarizing, inhibitory synaptic inputs. The afferent spikes are therefore superimposed on these(More)
of the nervous systems of both vertebrates and invertebrates depends critically on the levels of circulating neurohormones and on more specifically released neuromodulators (Kaczmarek and Levitan, 1987; Harris-Warrick and Marder, 1991). In vertebrates, for example, the enkephalin analogue (D-Ala 2)enkephalin inhibits the release of substance P from cultured(More)
Desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) can transform reversibly between the swarming gregarious phase and a solitarious phase, which avoids other locusts. This transformation entails dramatic changes in morphology, physiology, and behavior. We have used the lobula giant movement detector (LGMD) and its postsynaptic target, the descending contralateral(More)
Vertebrates and arthropods are both capable of load compensation during aimed limb movements, such as reaching and grooming. We measured the kinematics and activity of individual motoneurons in loaded and unloaded leg movements in an insect. To evaluate the role of active and passive musculoskeletal properties in aiming and load compensation, we used a(More)