Learn More
OBJECTIVE To assess the performance of novel contour enhanced funnel plots and a regression based adjustment method to detect and adjust for publication biases. DESIGN Secondary analysis of a published systematic literature review. DATA SOURCES Placebo controlled trials of antidepressants previously submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)(More)
BACKGROUND Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs1051730 and rs16969968, located within the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15q25 locus, are associated with heaviness of smoking, risk for lung cancer, and other smoking-related health outcomes. Previous studies have typically relied on self-reported smoking behavior, which may(More)
Mendelian randomisation analyses use genetic variants as instrumental variables (IVs) to estimate causal effects of modifiable risk factors on disease outcomes. Genetic variants typically explain a small proportion of the variability in risk factors; hence Mendelian randomisation analyses can require large sample sizes. However, an increasing number of(More)
OBJECTIVE To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. DESIGN Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. PARTICIPANTS 261 991 individuals of European descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10(More)
BACKGROUND Adiposity, assessed as elevated body mass index (BMI), is associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD); however, whether this is causal is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that positive observational associations between BMI and IHD are causal. METHODS AND FINDINGS In 75,627 individuals taken from two population-based and one(More)
Smokers have a higher prevalence of major depressive episodes and depressive symptoms than the general population, but whether this association is causal, or is due to confounding or reverse causation is uncertain because of the problems inherent in some epidemiological studies. Mendelian randomization, in which a genetic variant is used as a surrogate for(More)
AIMS To investigate the causal role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides in coronary heart disease (CHD) using multiple instrumental variables for Mendelian randomization. METHODS AND RESULTS We developed weighted allele scores based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with established associations with HDL-C,(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index. DESIGN Mendelian randomisation analysis, using variation at specific genes (SLC2A9 (rs7442295) as an instrument for uric acid; and FTO (rs9939609), MC4R(More)
AIMS To use Mendelian randomization to assess whether alcohol intake was causally associated with cognitive function. DESIGN Mendelian randomization using a genetic variant related to alcohol intake (ADH1B rs1229984) was used to obtain unbiased estimates of the association between alcohol intake and cognitive performance. SETTING Europe. PARTICIPANTS(More)
OBJECTIVE The causal nature of associations between circulating triglycerides, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes is unclear. We aimed to use Mendelian randomization to test the hypothesis that raised circulating triglyceride levels causally influence the risk of type 2 diabetes and raise normal fasting glucose levels and hepatic insulin resistance. (More)