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Broken chromosomes arising from DNA double-strand breaks result from endogenous events such as the production of reactive oxygen species during cellular metabolism, as well as from exogenous sources such as ionizing radiation. Left unrepaired or incorrectly repaired they can lead to genomic changes that may result in cell death or cancer. DNA-dependent(More)
The multidomain protein kinases BUB1 and BUBR1 (Mad3 in yeast, worms and plants) are central components of the mitotic checkpoint for spindle assembly (SAC). This evolutionarily conserved and essential self-monitoring system of the eukaryotic cell cycle ensures the high fidelity of chromosome segregation by delaying the onset of anaphase until all(More)
BACKGROUND Macromolecular structures are modeled by conformational optimization within experimental and knowledge-based restraints. Discrete restraint-based sampling generates high-quality structures within these restraints and facilitates further refinement in a continuous all-atom energy landscape. This approach has been used successfully for protein loop(More)
MOTIVATION JOY is a program to annotate protein sequence alignments with three-dimensional (3D) structural features. It was developed to display 3D structural information in a sequence alignment and to help understand the conservation of amino acids in their specific local environments. RESULTS : The JOY representation now constitutes an essential part of(More)
We describe a novel method to generate ensembles of conformations of the main-chain atoms [N, C(alpha), C, O, Cbeta] for a sequence of amino acids within the context of a fixed protein framework. Each conformation satisfies fundamental stereo-chemical restraints such as idealized geometry, favorable phi/psi angles, and excluded volume. The ensembles include(More)
The sheer volume of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms that have been generated in recent years from projects such as the Human Genome Project, the HapMap Project and Genome-Wide Association Studies means that it is not possible to characterize all mutations experimentally on the gene products, i.e. elucidate the effects of mutations on protein(More)
MOTIVATION Mutations play fundamental roles in evolution by introducing diversity into genomes. Missense mutations in structural genes may become either selectively advantageous or disadvantageous to the organism by affecting protein stability and/or interfering with interactions between partners. Thus, the ability to predict the impact of mutations on(More)
summary: We describe an extension to the Homologous Structure Alignment Database (HOMSTRAD; Mizuguchi et al., Protein Sci., 7, 2469-2471, 1998a) to include homologous sequences derived from the protein families database Pfam (Bateman et al., Nucleic Acids Res., 28, 263-266, 2000). HOMSTRAD is integrated with the server FUGUE (Shi et al., submitted, 2001)(More)
We describe an approach to protein structure comparison designed to detect distantly related proteins of similar fold, where the procedure must be sufficiently flexible to take into account the elasticity of protein folds without losing specificity. Protein structures are represented as a series of secondary structure elements, where for each element a(More)
Cancer genome and other sequencing initiatives are generating extensive data on non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in human and other genomes. In order to understand the impacts of nsSNPs on the structure and function of the proteome, as well as to guide protein engineering, accurate in silicomethodologies are required to study and(More)