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We describe a comparative protein modelling method designed to find the most probable structure for a sequence given its alignment with related structures. The three-dimensional (3D) model is obtained by optimally satisfying spatial restraints derived from the alignment and expressed as probability density functions (pdfs) for the features restrained. For(More)
We describe a database of protein structure alignments for homologous families. The database HOMSTRAD presently contains 130 protein families and 590 aligned structures, which have been selected on the basis of quality of the X-ray analysis and accuracy of the structure. For each family, the database provides a structure-based alignment derived using(More)
FUGUE, a program for recognizing distant homologues by sequence-structure comparison (http://www-cryst.bioc.cam.ac.uk/fugue/), has three key features. (1) Improved environment-specific substitution tables. Substitutions of an amino acid in a protein structure are constrained by its local structural environment, which can be defined in terms of secondary(More)
The TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) locus regulates several developmental and biochemical pathways in Arabidopsis, including the formation of hairs on leaves, stems, and roots, and the production of seed mucilage and anthocyanin pigments. The TTG1 locus has been isolated by positional cloning, and its identity was confirmed by complementation of a ttg1(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a member of an expanding family of neurotrophic factors (including brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the neurotrophins) that control the development and survival of certain neuronal populations both in the peripheral and in the central nervous systems. Its biological effects are mediated by a high-affinity ligand-receptor(More)
The multidomain protein kinases BUB1 and BUBR1 (Mad3 in yeast, worms and plants) are central components of the mitotic checkpoint for spindle assembly (SAC). This evolutionarily conserved and essential self-monitoring system of the eukaryotic cell cycle ensures the high fidelity of chromosome segregation by delaying the onset of anaphase until all(More)
The breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA2 controls the function of RAD51, a recombinase enzyme, in pathways for DNA repair by homologous recombination. We report here the structure of a complex between an evolutionarily conserved sequence in BRCA2 (the BRC repeat) and the RecA-homology domain of RAD51. The BRC repeat mimics a motif in RAD51 that serves(More)
Cancer genome and other sequencing initiatives are generating extensive data on non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in human and other genomes. In order to understand the impacts of nsSNPs on the structure and function of the proteome, as well as to guide protein engineering, accurate in silicomethodologies are required to study and(More)
An approach is described for modelling the three-dimensional structure of a protein from the tertiary structures of several homologous proteins that have been determined by X-ray analysis. A method is developed for the simultaneous superposition of several protein molecules and for the calculation of an 'average structure' or 'framework'. Investigation of(More)
Broken chromosomes arising from DNA double-strand breaks result from endogenous events such as the production of reactive oxygen species during cellular metabolism, as well as from exogenous sources such as ionizing radiation. Left unrepaired or incorrectly repaired they can lead to genomic changes that may result in cell death or cancer. DNA-dependent(More)