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Upon ligand binding at the subunit interfaces, the extracellular domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor undergoes conformational changes, and agonist binding allosterically triggers opening of the ion channel. The soluble acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) from snail has been shown to be a structural and functional surrogate of the ligand-binding(More)
UCS proteins, such as UNC-45, influence muscle contraction and other myosin-dependent motile processes. We report the first X-ray crystal structure of a UCS domain-containing protein, the UNC-45 myosin chaperone from Drosophila melanogaster (DmUNC-45). The structure reveals that the central and UCS domains form a contiguous arrangement of 17 consecutive(More)
IkappaBalpha regulates the transcription factor NF-kappaB through the formation of stable IkappaBalpha/NF-kappaB complexes. Prior to induction, IkappaBalpha retains NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm until the NF-kappaB activation signal is received. After activation, NF-kappaB is removed from gene promoters through association with nuclear IkappaBalpha, restoring(More)
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are well-characterized allosteric transmembrane proteins involved in the rapid gating of ions elicited by ACh. These receptors belong to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels, which also includes GABAA and GABAC, 5-HT3, and glycine receptors. The nAChRs are homo- or heteromeric pentamers of(More)
1998b). These structures indicate that the RHR exhibits La Jolla, California 92093-0359 a tripartite organization. The amino-terminal 180 amino acids fold into an immunoglobulin-like domain. A short (10 amino acids) flexible linker connects this amino-Summary terminal domain to a second immunoglobulin-like domain of approximately 100 amino acids in length.(More)
Activation of the IκB kinase (IKK) is central to NF-κB signaling. However, the precise activation mechanism by which catalytic IKK subunits gain the ability to induce NF-κB transcriptional activity is not well understood. Here we report a 4 Å x-ray crystal structure of human IKK2 (hIKK2) in its catalytically active conformation. The hIKK2 domain(More)
Many peptidic toxins from animal venoms target neuronal or peripheral synaptic receptors with high affinities and specificities. Hence, these toxins are not only potent natural weapons but also precise molecular tools for pharmacological studies of their receptors. Although they belong to various structural and/or functional subfamilies, they often share(More)
Catalytic subunits of the IκB kinase (IKK), IKK1/IKKα, and IKK2/IKKβ function in vivo as dimers in association with the necessary scaffolding subunit NEMO/IKKγ. Recent X-ray crystal structures of IKK2 suggested that dimerization might be mediated by a smaller protein-protein interaction than previously thought. Here, we report that removal of a portion of(More)
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