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Upon ligand binding at the subunit interfaces, the extracellular domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor undergoes conformational changes, and agonist binding allosterically triggers opening of the ion channel. The soluble acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) from snail has been shown to be a structural and functional surrogate of the ligand-binding(More)
UCS proteins, such as UNC-45, influence muscle contraction and other myosin-dependent motile processes. We report the first X-ray crystal structure of a UCS domain-containing protein, the UNC-45 myosin chaperone from Drosophila melanogaster (DmUNC-45). The structure reveals that the central and UCS domains form a contiguous arrangement of 17 consecutive(More)
IkappaBalpha regulates the transcription factor NF-kappaB through the formation of stable IkappaBalpha/NF-kappaB complexes. Prior to induction, IkappaBalpha retains NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm until the NF-kappaB activation signal is received. After activation, NF-kappaB is removed from gene promoters through association with nuclear IkappaBalpha, restoring(More)
The prosurvival transcription factor NF-kappaB specifically binds promoter DNA to activate target gene expression. NF-kappaB is regulated through interactions with IkappaB inhibitor proteins. Active proteolysis of these IkappaB proteins is, in turn, under the control of the IkappaB kinase complex (IKK). Together, these three molecules form the NF-kappaB(More)
The crystal structure of IkappaBalpha in complex with the transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB) shows six ankyrin repeats, which are all ordered. Electron density was not observed for most of the residues within the PEST sequence, although it is required for high-affinity binding. To characterize the folded state of IkappaBalpha (67-317)(More)
1998b). These structures indicate that the RHR exhibits La Jolla, California 92093-0359 a tripartite organization. The amino-terminal 180 amino acids fold into an immunoglobulin-like domain. A short (10 amino acids) flexible linker connects this amino-Summary terminal domain to a second immunoglobulin-like domain of approximately 100 amino acids in length.(More)
NF-kappaB dimers, inhibitor IkappaB proteins, and NF-kappaB.IkappaB complexes exhibit distinct patterns in partitioning between nuclear and cytoplasmic cellular compartments. IkappaB-dependent modulation of NF-kappaB subcellular localization represents one of the more poorly understood processes in the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. In this study, we have(More)
Activation of the IκB kinase (IKK) is central to NF-κB signaling. However, the precise activation mechanism by which catalytic IKK subunits gain the ability to induce NF-κB transcriptional activity is not well understood. Here we report a 4 Å x-ray crystal structure of human IKK2 (hIKK2) in its catalytically active conformation. The hIKK2 domain(More)
NF-κB is an inducible transcription factor that controls expression of diverse stress response genes. The entire mammalian NF-κB family is generated from a small cadre of five gene products that assemble with one another in various combinations to form active homo- and heterodimers. The ability of NF-κB to alter target gene expression is regulated at many(More)
We have determined the binding energies of complexes formed between Ikappa Balpha and the wild type and mutational variants of three different Rel/NF-kappaB dimers, namely, the p50/p65 heterodimer and homodimers of p50 and p65. We show that although a common mode of interaction exists between the Rel/NF-kappaB dimers and Ikappa Balpha, IkappaB alpha binds(More)