This paper develops a scaling model to estimate U.S. Supreme Court opinion locations and justice ideal points along a common spatial dimension using data derived from the citations between opinions. Citations from new opinions to precedent opinions usually apply and endorse the doctrine of the precedent opinion; however, sometimes they implicitly or… (More)
When intense light interacts with an atomic gas, recollision between an ionizing electron and its parent ion creates high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser frequency. This sub-cycle effect generates coherent soft X-rays and attosecond pulses, and provides a means to image molecular orbitals. Recently, high harmonics have been generated from bulk… (More)
How do the errors of regulators – approving bad products, or rejecting good ones – depend upon the submission strategies and characteristics of submitting private entities or firms? We develop a model of approval regulation in which both firm and regulator are uncertain about the underlying quality of a product, but where the firm is better informed than… (More)
Insufficient focused attention has been paid by the conservation community to conservation of biodiversity outside of protected areas. Biodiversity mainstreaming addresses this gap in global conservation practice by " embedding biodiversity considerations into policies, strategies and practices of key public and private actors that impact or rely on… (More)
Optical vortices, which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), can be flexibly produced and measured with infrared and visible light. Their application is an important research topic for super-resolution imaging, optical communications and quantum optics. However, only a few methods can produce OAM beams in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) or X-ray, and… (More)
After reading ref. 1 we became aware of a mistake in this Letter. The last sentence of the legend of Fig. 1b should have read: " The delay of the second harmonic is defined in cycles of the second harmonic. ". As a result, the even harmonics modulate twice per cycle of the second harmonic in Figs 1b, 3 and Extended Data Fig. 3, rather than once as stated.… (More)
The Wellington Guelph Drug Strategy Committee is a cross-sectoral coalition of 30 community agencies and partners, as well as representatives of the lived experience community, who are working together to reduce the impacts of substance misuse in our community. We are committed to the ongoing development and implementation of a community-based 4-Pillar drug… (More)
Using a femtosecond enhancement cavity in combination with high harmonic generation, we generate EUV radiation out to 61 nm at high (50 MHz) repetition rates with extremely low amplitude noise.