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Spike (S) proteins, the defining projections of the enveloped coronaviruses (CoVs), mediate cell entry by connecting viruses to plasma membrane receptors and by catalyzing subsequent virus-cell membrane fusions. The latter membrane fusion requires an S protein conformational flexibility that is facilitated by proteolytic cleavages. We hypothesized that the(More)
In this era of continued emergence of zoonotic virus infections, the rapid development of rodent models represents a critical barrier to public health preparedness, including the testing of antivirus therapy and vaccines. The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was recently identified as the causative agent of a severe pneumonia. Given(More)
UNLABELLED The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) recently spread from an animal reservoir to infect humans, causing sporadic severe and frequently fatal respiratory disease. Appropriate public health and control measures will require discovery of the zoonotic MERS coronavirus reservoirs. The relevant animal hosts are liable to be those(More)
Coronavirus-cell entry programs involve virus-cell membrane fusions mediated by viral spike (S) proteins. Coronavirus S proteins acquire membrane fusion competence by receptor interactions, proteolysis, and acidification in endosomes. This review describes our current understanding of the S proteins, their interactions with and their responses to these(More)
Enveloped viruses enter cells by viral glycoprotein-mediated binding to host cells and subsequent fusion of virus and host cell membranes. For the coronaviruses, viral spike (S) proteins execute these cell entry functions. The S proteins are set apart from other viral and cellular membrane fusion proteins by their extensively palmitoylated(More)
There is an increasing interest in the establishment of plantations in the Southeast region with the objective of producing biomass for energy and fuel. Establishment of these plantations will require the development of a feasible way to harvest them. These types of plantations are called Short Rotation Woody Crops (SRWC). Popular SRWC species are Eucalypt(More)
Although there is renewed interest in intensively managed, short-rotation plantations as a source of hardwood for pulp mills, few have been established in the Southeast. Understanding all the costs associated with these plantations will help determine their feasibility. Using a model developed to summarize all the costs, a break-even analysis was completed(More)
UNLABELLED Intercellular nanotube connections have been identified as an alternative pathway for cellular spreading of certain viruses. In cells infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), nanotubes were observed connecting two distant cells with contiguous membranes, with the core infectious viral machinery (viral RNA,(More)