Tom G. Connell

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RATIONALE Two forms of the IFN-gamma release assay (IFNGRA) to detect tuberculosis infection are available, but neither has been evaluated in comparable HIV-infected and uninfected persons in a high tuberculosis incidence environment. OBJECTIVE To compare the ability of the T-SPOT.TB (Oxford Immunotec, Abingdon, UK), QuantiFERON-TB Gold (Cellestis,(More)
BACKGROUND The diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection with a tuberculin skin test (TST) in children is complicated by the potential influence of prior exposure to Bacille Calmette Geurin (BCG) vaccination or environmental mycobacteria. A whole blood assay has recently been developed to quantitatively measure interferon gamma(More)
BACKGROUND There are limited data comparing the performance of the two commercially available interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) release assays (IGRAs) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in children. We compared QuantiFERON-TB gold In Tube (QFT-IT), T-SPOT.TB and the tuberculin skin test (TST) in children at risk for latent TB infection or TB disease. (More)
BACKGROUND The diagnosis of perinatal tuberculosis (TB) is problematic because of its nonspecific presentation, the difficulty of obtaining microbiological confirmation, and the unreliability of the tuberculin skin test. Immunodiagnosis of TB has received new attention with the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific immunodominant antigens (early(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate an enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected children with suspected TB and to compare the performance of ELISPOT with the tuberculin skin test (TST). METHODS Interferon-gamma responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens were measured by ELISPOT in HIV-infected(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major threat to global health. The recently launched Global Plan to Stop Tuberculosis 2006-2015 highlights the need for accurate, simple and low-cost diagnostic tests for the detection of TB infection. For the first time in decades, new diagnostic tools have emerged that may facilitate this goal. The discovery of Mycobacterium(More)
BACKGROUND Recent interest has focused on the potential use of serial interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) release assay (IGRA) measurements to assess the response to anti-tuberculous (TB) treatment. The kinetics of IFN-gamma responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) antigens in HIV-infected children during treatment have not however been previously(More)
The global burden of childhood pulmonary TB has been underappreciated, in part due to difficulties in obtaining microbiological confirmation of disease. Most HIV-uninfected children can be diagnosed using a combination of clinical and epidemiological features, tuberculin skin testing and chest radiography, as represented in different scoring systems.(More)
RATIONALE Approximately 100 million doses of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine are given each year to protect against tuberculosis (TB). More than 20 genetically distinct BCG vaccine strains are in use worldwide. Previous studies suggest that BCG vaccine strain influences the immune response and protection against TB. Current data on which BCG vaccine(More)
Mycobacterium bovis BCG is one of the most commonly administered vaccines. Complications, including disseminated BCG disease, are rare but increasingly reported in immunodeficient children. There is growing recognition of the importance of differences between BCG vaccine strains. We determined the susceptibilities of five genetically distinct BCG vaccine(More)