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BACKGROUND The diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection with a tuberculin skin test (TST) in children is complicated by the potential influence of prior exposure to Bacille Calmette Geurin (BCG) vaccination or environmental mycobacteria. A whole blood assay has recently been developed to quantitatively measure interferon gamma(More)
RATIONALE Two forms of the IFN-gamma release assay (IFNGRA) to detect tuberculosis infection are available, but neither has been evaluated in comparable HIV-infected and uninfected persons in a high tuberculosis incidence environment. OBJECTIVE To compare the ability of the T-SPOT.TB (Oxford Immunotec, Abingdon, UK), QuantiFERON-TB Gold (Cellestis,(More)
BACKGROUND There are limited data comparing the performance of the two commercially available interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) release assays (IGRAs) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in children. We compared QuantiFERON-TB gold In Tube (QFT-IT), T-SPOT.TB and the tuberculin skin test (TST) in children at risk for latent TB infection or TB disease. (More)
RATIONALE Current immunodiagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB), including the tuberculin skin test and IFN-γ release assay (IGRA), have significant limitations, which include their inability to distinguish between latent TB infection (LTBI) and active TB, a distinction critical for clinical management. OBJECTIVES To identify mycobacteria-specific cytokine(More)
BACKGROUND The diagnosis of perinatal tuberculosis (TB) is problematic because of its nonspecific presentation, the difficulty of obtaining microbiological confirmation, and the unreliability of the tuberculin skin test. Immunodiagnosis of TB has received new attention with the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific immunodominant antigens (early(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate an enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected children with suspected TB and to compare the performance of ELISPOT with the tuberculin skin test (TST). METHODS Interferon-gamma responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens were measured by ELISPOT in HIV-infected(More)
BCG vaccine is one of the most commonly-administered vaccines worldwide. Studies suggest the protective efficacy of BCG against TB is better for children than for adults. One potential explanation is that BCG induces a better protective immune response in children. Twenty six children and adults were immunised with BCG. The proportion of(More)
RATIONALE Approximately 100 million doses of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine are given each year to protect against tuberculosis (TB). More than 20 genetically distinct BCG vaccine strains are in use worldwide. Previous studies suggest that BCG vaccine strain influences the immune response and protection against TB. Current data on which BCG vaccine(More)
OBJECTIVE The primary aim of this study was to determine age-stratified rates of co-existing bacterial meningitis in children with urinary tract infection (UTI). The secondary aims of this study were to determine the causative pathogens of UTI, and the clinical features and outcome of children with co-existing meningitis. METHODS Analysis of data(More)