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Both phenotype and treatment response vary in patients with Parkinson's disease. Anatomical and functional imaging studies suggest that individual symptoms may represent malfunction of different segregated networks running in parallel through the basal ganglia. In this study, we use a newly described, electrophysiological method to describe(More)
The pedunculopontine nucleus, a component of the reticular formation, is topographically organized in animal models and implicated in locomotor control. In Parkinson's disease, pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation is an emerging treatment for gait freezing. Local field potentials recorded from pedunculopontine nucleus electrodes in such patients have(More)
Functional neurosurgery has afforded the opportunity to assess interactions between populations of neurons in the human cerebral cortex and basal ganglia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Interactions occur over a wide range of frequencies, and the functional significance of those >30 Hz is particularly unclear. Do they improve movement, and, if(More)
Depleted of dopamine, the dynamics of the parkinsonian brain impact on both 'action' and 'resting' motor behaviour. Deep brain stimulation has become an established means of managing these symptoms, although its mechanisms of action remain unclear. Non-invasive characterizations of induced brain responses, and the effective connectivity underlying them,(More)
OBJECTIVES Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can be a highly effective treatment for Parkinson's disease. However, therapeutic efficacy can be limited by inconsistent targeting of this nucleus. It was shown previously that an increase in local field potential (LFP) power over the beta frequency band may provide intraoperative(More)
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) has become an accepted treatment for patients experiencing the motor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD). While its successes are becoming increasingly apparent, the mechanisms underlying its action remain unclear. Multiple studies using radiotracer-based imaging have investigated DBS-induced(More)
Human neural progenitor cells (HNPCs) can be expanded in large numbers for significant periods of time to provide a reliable source of neural cells for transplantation in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, HNPCs isolated from embryonic cortex were expanded as neurospheres in cell culture for 10 months. Just(More)
Deep brain stimulation has been used as a means of reducing dyskinesias in various conditions, including Parkinson's disease and dystonia for many years. Recently, owing to the clinical similarities between L-dopa induced dyskinesia and chorea, deep brain stimulation has now been implemented as a novel treatment method in both Huntington's disease and(More)
Speech changes after bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) can be variable, with the majority of patients experiencing speech deterioration over time. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptual characteristics of speech following chronic STN-DBS and to analyze clinical and surgical factors that could predict speech change.(More)