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Although some consensus has emerged among the scientific and regulatory communities that the urban ambient atmospheric mix of combustion related pollutants is a determinant of population health, the relative toxicity of the chemical and physical components of this complex mixture remains unclear. Daily mortality rates and concurrent data on(More)
The association of daily cardiac and respiratory admissions to 168 acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, with daily levels of particulate sulfates was examined over the 6-year period 1983-1988. Sulfate levels were recorded at nine monitoring stations in regions of southern and central Ontario spanned by three monitoring networks. A 13-micrograms/m3(More)
The association between daily variations in ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and mortality was examined in 12 of Canada's largest cities, using a 19-yr time-series analysis (from 1981-1999). The authors employed parametric statistical methods that are not subject to the recently discovered convergence and error estimation problems of(More)
Several adverse health effects, such as respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity, have been linked to exposure to particulate matter in ambient air; however, the biologic activity of gas-phase ambient organic air contaminants has not been examined as thoroughly. Using aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-based and estrogen receptor (ER)-based cell bioassay(More)
To investigate the acute respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution, the number of emergency of urgent daily respiratory admissions to 168 acute care hospitals in Ontario were related to estimates of exposure to ozone and sulfates in the vicinity of each hospital. Ozone levels were obtained from 22 monitoring stations maintained by the Ontario(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To document the existence and investigate the etiology of "thunderstorm asthma," which has been reported sporadically over the past 20 years. DESIGN We assessed the relationship between thunderstorms, air pollutants, aeroallergens, and asthma admissions to a children's hospital emergency department over a 6-year period. RESULTS During(More)
In this paper, the pooled NO2 association with nonaccidental mortality is examined across 10 cities in Canada in single- and two-pollutant time-series models. The results reaffirm that NO2 has the strongest association with mortality, particularly in the warm season. Although attributing such effects to NO2 cannot be ruled out, it is plausible that NO2 is(More)
The influence of air pollution on disability days in Toronto during the period 1994-1999 was examined using data from Canada's National Population Health Survey. A model of disability days (the sum of days spent in bed and days when the respondent cut down on usual activities) during the 2 weeks prior to the interview was constructed by sequentially(More)
BACKGROUND The risk of hospitalization for asthma caused by outdoor aeroallergens is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine the association between changes in outdoor aeroallergens and hospitalizations for asthma from the Pacific coast to the Atlantic coast of Canada. METHODS A daily time series analysis was done to test(More)
Although progress has been made in the last few decades at reducing ambient concentrations of air pollutants, scientific evidence suggests that there remains a risk to human health from exposure to these pollutants at current levels in Canada. Much of the motivation for air pollution reduction efforts is to protect population health. This article presents a(More)