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BACKGROUND Patient financial incentives ("incentives") have been widely used to promote chlamydia screening uptake amongst 15-24 year olds in England, but there is scarce evidence of their effectiveness. The objectives of the study were to describe incentives used to promote chlamydia screening in Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in England and to evaluate their(More)
BACKGROUND Gonorrhoea has been among the easiest infections to cure with antibiotics. Nevertheless, emerging resistance has driven repeated treatment shifts. Decreased cephalosporin susceptibility is now being reported. We examined cephalosporin MIC trends for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the UK and undertook pharmacodynamic analyses to predict efficacy against(More)
The Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Programme (GRASP) monitors trends in antimicrobial resistance in consecutive gonococcal isolates from 26 genitourinary medicine clinics in England and Wales. In 2002, 2204 gonococcal isolates were tested, and the overall prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance (minimum inhibitory concentration > or =1(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of body piercing, other than of earlobes, in the general adult population in England, and to describe the distribution of body piercing by age group, sex, social class, anatomical site, and who performed the piercings. To estimate the proportion of piercings that resulted in complications and the proportion of piercings(More)
An outbreak of W135 meningococcal disease was seen in 2000 and 2001 among pilgrims returning from Saudi Arabia and their contacts. The Public Health Laboratory Service set up enhanced surveillance to monitor spread and virulence of the outbreak strain, and to collect data on case characteristics. The number of cases reported from England and Wales in 2001(More)
Experimental plantings were installed at five sites in three locations in western Minnesota. Aboveground biomass production increased 43–82% as a result of three annual applications of urea or balanced nutrient blend fertilizer beginning near canopy closure. There were no production differences between the type of fertilizer used, indicating that N was the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of the H1N1 influenza pandemic on the public's expectations for a general practice consultation and antibiotic for acute respiratory illness. DESIGN Mixed methods. PARTICIPANTS Qualitative interviews: 17 participants with acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) visiting English pharmacies. Face-to-face survey: about(More)
During the 2001 epidemic of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in livestock in England and Wales, we discovered a corresponding decrease in laboratory reports of cryptosporidiosis in humans. Using a regression model of laboratory reports of cryptosporidiosis, we found an estimated 35% (95% confidence interval [CI] 20% to 47%) reduction in reports during the weeks(More)
A total of 6% of 6,983 households in the United Kingdom had leftover antimicrobial drugs, and 4% had standby antimicrobial drugs. Respondents with leftover drugs were more educated, more knowledgeable about antimicrobial drugs, younger, and female. Of respondents with leftover drugs, 44% kept them in case of future need, and 18% had taken these drugs(More)
OBJECTIVES The third-generation cephalosporins recommended in national guidelines are amongst the last remaining effective agents for treatment of gonorrhoea. This study characterizes gonococcal isolates with decreased cefixime susceptibility from England and Wales. METHODS A total of 96 isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae exhibiting cefixime MICs of ≥0.125(More)