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Combination therapy that includes artemisinin derivatives cures most falciparum malaria infections. Lowering transmission by reducing gametocyte infectivity would be an additional benefit. To examine the effect of such therapy on transmission, Gambian children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria were treated with standard regimens of chloroquine or(More)
BACKGROUND RTS,S/AS02 is a pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine based on the circumsporozoite surface protein of Plasmodium falciparum fused to HBsAg, incorporating a new adjuvant (AS02). We did a randomised trial of the efficacy of RTS,S/AS02 against natural P. falciparum infection in semi-immune adult men in The Gambia. METHODS 306 men aged 18-45 years were(More)
BACKGROUND Resistance to cheap effective antimalarial drugs, especially to pyrimethaminesulphadoxine (Fansidar), is likely to have a striking impact on childhood mortality in sub-Sharan Africa. The use of artesunate (artesunic acid) [corrected] in combination with pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine may delay or prevent resistance. We investigated the efficacy,(More)
CD40 ligand (CD40L), a glycoprotein involved in B cell proliferation, antigen presenting cell activation, and Ig class switching, is important in the immune response to infection. Rare coding mutations in CD40L can lead to life-threatening immunodeficiency but the potential for common variants to alter disease susceptibility remains to be explored. To(More)
The induction of cellular immunity, in conjunction with antibodies, may be essential for vaccines to protect against blood-stage infection with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We have shown that prime-boost delivery of P. falciparum blood-stage antigens by chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) followed by the attenuated orthopoxvirus MVA is(More)
Many human T-cell responses specific for epitopes in Plasmodium falciparum have been described, but none has yet been shown to be predictive of protection against natural malaria infection. Here we report a peptide-specific T-cell assay that is strongly associated with protection of humans in The Gambia, West Africa, from both malaria infection and disease.(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate possible genotype-phenotype correlations and to evaluate the natural history of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1X (CMT1X). BACKGROUND CMT1X is caused by over 260 distinct mutations in the gap junction beta 1 (GJB1) gene, located on the X chromosome, which encodes the gap junction protein connexin 32 (Cx32). The(More)
This study investigated the effect of lidocaine i.v. on halothane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in ponies. Six ponies were anaesthetised with thiopentone and succinylcholine, intubated and anaesthesia maintained with halothane. Ventilation was controlled and blood pressure maintained within clinically acceptable limits. Following a 2 h equilibration(More)
An appreciation of the psychological impacts of global climate change entails recognizing the complexity and multiple meanings associated with climate change; situating impacts within other social, technological, and ecological transitions; and recognizing mediators and moderators of impacts. This article describes three classes of psychological impacts:(More)
We report a method for typing polymorphisms at the T-cell epitopes within the Th2R and Th3R regions of the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP). This method combines the use of PCR and sequence specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP), and allows the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in these epitope regions. PCR-SSOP is a(More)