Tom D. Brutsaert

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High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure) exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological(More)
Admixture mapping (AM) is a promising method for the identification of genetic risk factors for complex traits and diseases showing prevalence differences among populations. Efficient application of this method requires the use of a genomewide panel of ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) to infer the population of origin of chromosomal regions in admixed(More)
Understanding the distribution of human genetic variation is an important foundation for research into the genetics of common diseases. Some of the alleles that modify common disease risk are themselves likely to be common and, thus, amenable to identification using gene-association methods. A problem with this approach is that the large sample sizes(More)
High-altitude environments (>2,500 m) provide scientists with a natural laboratory to study the physiological and genetic effects of low ambient oxygen tension on human populations. One approach to understanding how life at high altitude has affected human metabolism is to survey genome-wide datasets for signatures of natural selection. In this work, we(More)
BACKGROUND High altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) that is severe enough to require urgent medical care is infrequent. We hypothesised that subclinical HAPE is far more frequent than suspected during even modest climbs of average effort. METHODS We assessed 262 consecutive climbers of Monte Rosa (4559 m), before ascent and about 24 h later on the summit 1 h(More)
To determine if hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) may regulate skeletal muscle vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in response to exercise or hypoxia, rats underwent 1h sciatic nerve electrical stimulation (ES), hypoxic exposure (H) or combined stimuli. HIF-1alpha protein levels increased six-fold with maximal (8V) ES with or without H.(More)
Most individuals throughout the Americas are admixed descendants of Native American, European, and African ancestors. Complex historical factors have resulted in varying proportions of ancestral contributions between individuals within and among ethnic groups. We developed a panel of 446 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) optimized to estimate ancestral(More)
Highland natives show unique breathing patterns and ventilatory responses at altitude, both at rest and during exercise. For many ventilatory traits, there is also significant variation between highland native groups, including indigenous populations in the Andes and Himalaya, and more recent altitude arrivals in places like Colorado. This review summarizes(More)
Chest depth, chest width, forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume (FEV1) were measured in 170 adult males differing by ancestral (genetic) and developmental exposure to high altitude (HA). A complete migrant study design was used to study HA natives (Aymara/Quechua ancestry, n = 88) and low altitude (LA) natives (European/North American(More)
Quechua in the Andes may be genetically adapted to altitude and able to resist decrements in maximal O2 consumption in hypoxia (DeltaVo2 max). This hypothesis was tested via repeated measures of Vo2 max (sea level vs. 4338 m) in 30 men of mixed Spanish and Quechua origins. Individual genetic admixture level (%Spanish ancestry) was estimated by using(More)