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Embryonal tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a heterogeneous group of tumours about which little is known biologically, and whose diagnosis, on the basis of morphologic appearance alone, is controversial. Medulloblastomas, for example, are the most common malignant brain tumour of childhood, but their pathogenesis is unknown, their(More)
The reelin gene encodes an extracellular protein that is crucial for neuronal migration in laminated brain regions. To gain insights into the functions of Reelin, we performed high-resolution in situ hybridization analyses to determine the pattern of reelin expression in the developing forebrain of the mouse. We also performed double-labeling studies with(More)
The organization of several laminated structures in the brain is controlled by a signaling pathway activated by Reelin, a large glycoprotein secreted by pioneer neurons in the developing brain. Reelin binds to transmembrane receptors, including VLDLR and ApoER2, and stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of Disabled-1 (Dab1), which associates with an NPxY(More)
Mutation of either reelin (Reln) or disabled-1 (Dab1) results in widespread abnormalities in laminar structures throughout the brain and ataxia in reeler and scrambler mice. Both exhibit the same neuroanatomical defects, including cerebellar hypoplasia with Purkinje cell ectopia and disruption of neuronal layers in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.(More)
The autosomal recessive mouse mutation reeler leads to impaired motor coordination, tremors and ataxia. Neurons in affected mice fail to reach their correct locations in the developing brain, disrupting the organization of the cerebellar and cerebral cortices and other laminated regions. Here we use a previously characterized reeler allele (rl(tg)) to close(More)
The proto-oncogene c-fos is expressed in neurons in response to direct stimulation by growth factors and neurotransmitters. In order to determine whether the c-fos protein (Fos) and Fos-related proteins can be induced in response to polysynaptic activation, rat hindlimb motor/sensory cortex was stimulated electrically and Fos expression examined(More)
A dramatic and specific induction of c-fos was observed in identifiable neuronal populations in vivo after administration of the convulsant Metrazole. This effect was time- and dose-dependent and was abolished by prior treatment with the anticonvulsant drugs diazepam or pentobarbital. About 60 minutes after administration of Metrazole, c-fos messenger RNA(More)
Tumors of the same histologic type often comprise clinically and molecularly distinct subgroups; however, the etiology of these subgroups is unknown. Here, we report that histologically identical, but genetically distinct, ependymomas exhibit patterns of gene expression that recapitulate those of radial glia cells in the corresponding region of the central(More)
The neurological mutant mouse reeler has played a critical role in the evolution of our understanding of normal brain development. From the earliest neuroanatomic studies of reeler, it was anticipated that the characterization of the gene responsible would elucidate important molecular and cellular principles governing cell positioning and the formation of(More)