Tom Caradoc-Davies

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Natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes accomplish the critically important function of killing virus-infected and neoplastic cells. They do this by releasing the pore-forming protein perforin and granzyme proteases from cytoplasmic granules into the cleft formed between the abutting killer and target cell membranes. Perforin, a 67-kilodalton(More)
The common pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes colonizes the human skin and tonsils and can invade underlying tissues. This requires the adhesion of S. pyogenes to host surface receptors mediated through adhesins. The laminin-binding protein Lbp has been suggested as an adhesin, specific for the human extracellular matrix protein laminin. Sequence alignments,(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is a significant human pathogen. Among its large repertoire of secreted toxins is a group of staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs). These are homologous to superantigens but do not have the same activity. SSL5 is shown here to bind to human granulocytes and to the cell surface receptors for human IgA (Fc alphaRI) and(More)
Plasminogen is the proenzyme precursor of the primary fibrinolytic protease plasmin. Circulating plasminogen, which comprises a Pan-apple (PAp) domain, five kringle domains (KR1-5), and a serine protease (SP) domain, adopts a closed, activation-resistant conformation. The kringle domains mediate interactions with fibrin clots and cell-surface receptors.(More)
Cell surface pili are polymeric protein assemblies that enable bacteria to adhere to surfaces and to specific host tissues. The pili expressed by Gram-positive bacteria constitute a unique paradigm in which sortase-mediated covalent linkages join successive pilin subunits like beads on a string. These pili are formed from two or three distinct types of(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 secretes a siderophore, pyoverdine(PAO), which contains a short peptide attached to a dihydroxyquinoline moiety. Synthesis of this peptide is thought to be catalyzed by nonribosomal peptide synthetases, one of which is encoded by the pvdD gene. The first module of pvdD was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the protein(More)
Membrane attack complex/perforin-like (MACPF) proteins comprise the largest superfamily of pore-forming proteins, playing crucial roles in immunity and pathogenesis. Soluble monomers assemble into large transmembrane pores via conformational transitions that remain to be structurally and mechanistically characterised. Here we present an 11 Å resolution(More)
Altered metabolism of the inositol sugars myo-inositol (MI) and d-chiro-inositol is implicated in diabetic complications. In animals, catabolism of MI and D-chiro-inositol depends on the enzyme MI oxygenase (MIOX), which catalyzes the first committed step of the glucuronate-xylulose pathway, and is found almost exclusively in the kidneys. The crystal(More)
BACKGROUND In mammals succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) plays an essential role in the metabolism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to succinic acid (SA). Deficiency of SSADH in humans results in elevated levels of GABA and gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), which leads to psychomotor retardation, muscular hypotonia,(More)
The caspase recruitment domain (CARD) is present in death-domain superfamily proteins involved in inflammation and apoptosis. BinCARD is named for its ability to interact with Bcl10 and inhibit downstream signalling. Human BinCARD is expressed as two isoforms that encode the same N-terminal CARD region but which differ considerably in their C-termini. Both(More)