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BACKGROUND Plants achieve remarkable plasticity in shoot system architecture by regulating the activity of secondary shoot meristems, laid down in the axil of each leaf. Axillary meristem activity, and hence shoot branching, is regulated by a network of interacting hormonal signals that move through the plant. Among these, auxin, moving down the plant in(More)
The root cap has a central role in root growth, determining the growth trajectory and facilitating penetration into the soil. Root cap cells have specialized functions and morphologies, and border cells are released into the rhizosphere by specific cell wall modifications. Here, we demonstrate that the cellular maturation of root cap is redundantly(More)
In many plant species only a small proportion of buds yield branches. Both the timing and extent of bud activation are tightly regulated to produce specific branching architectures. For example, the primary shoot apex can inhibit the activation of lateral buds. This process is termed apical dominance and is dependent on the plant hormone auxin moving down(More)
Despite their pivotal role in plant development, control mechanisms for oriented cell divisions have remained elusive. Here, we describe how a precisely regulated cell division orientation switch in an Arabidopsis stem cell is controlled by upstream patterning factors. We show that the stem cell regulatory PLETHORA transcription factors induce division(More)
The plant hormone auxin is a conserved regulator of development which has been implicated in the generation of morphological novelty. PIN-FORMED1 (PIN) auxin efflux carriers are central to auxin function by regulating its distribution. PIN family members have divergent structures and cellular localizations, but the origin and evolutionary significance of(More)
This paper describes the implementation and performance of SPRINT, an interactive system for printed circuit board design developed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Topics discussed include the placement subsystem, the routing subsystem consisting of an interactive manual router, an automatic batch router, and a via elimination program, as(More)
The bulk polar movement of the plant signaling molecule auxin through the stem is a long-recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. Here we show that the highly polar, high conductance polar auxin transport stream (PATS) is only part of a multimodal auxin transport network in the stem. The dynamics of auxin movement through stems are inconsistent with a(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiac output (CO) is an important determinant of the hemodynamic state in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). We tested the hypothesis that CO can be estimated from the right ventricular (RV) pressure waveform in CHF patients using a pulse contour cardiac output algorithm that considers constant but patient specific RV outflow tract(More)
A PLETHORA-Auxin Transcription Module Controls Cell Division Plane Rotation through MAP65 and CLASP --Cell, Volume 149, Issue 2, 13 April 2012, Pages 383-396. Our paper reported that Arabidopsis PLETHORA transcription factors regulate cell division planes by transcriptional activation of MAP65, which interacts with the CLASP protein to guide microtubule(More)
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