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When we make a smooth eye movement to track a moving object, the visual system must take the eye's movement into account in order to estimate the object's velocity relative to the head. This can be done by using extra-retinal signals to estimate eye velocity and then subtracting expected from observed retinal motion. Two familiar illusions of perceived(More)
When presented with random-dot displays with little depth information, observers cannot determine their direction of self-motion accurately in the presence of rotational flow without appropriate extra-retinal information (Royden CS et al. Vis Res 1994;34:3197-214.). On theoretical grounds, one might expect improved performance when depth information is(More)
Pursuit eye movements alter retinal motion cues to depth. For instance, the sinusoidal retinal velocity profile produced by a translating, corrugated surface resembles a sinusoidal shear during pursuit. One way to recover the correct spatial phase of the corrugation's profile (i.e. which part is near and which part is far) is to combine estimates of shear(More)
Many visual experiments call for visual displays in which dots are plotted with very fine positional accuracy. Spatial hyperacuities and motion displacement thresholds can be as low as 5 sec arc. On computer graphics displays small angular displacements of a pixel can be obtained only with long viewing distances which impose a small field of view. To(More)
During smooth pursuit eye movement, observers often misperceive velocity. Pursued stimuli appear slower (Aubert-Fleishl phenomenon [1, 2]), stationary objects appear to move (Filehne illusion [3]), the perceived direction of moving objects is distorted (trajectory misperception [4]), and self-motion veers away from its true path (e.g., the slalom illusion(More)
A compelling impression of surface slant is produced by random dot displays depicting deformation and translation alone. A simple model of slant estimation based upon deformation is shown to capture quantitatively both the perceived slant in this situation and the distortion in perceived slant produced when constant deformation is added to random dot(More)
Motion parallax provides cues to the three-dimensional layout of a viewed scene and, in particular, to surface tilt and slant. For example, as a textured surface, inclined around a horizontal axis, translates horizontally relative to an observer's view point, then, in the absence of head and eye movements, the observer's retinal flow will contain a(More)
1. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from rat striatal cholinergic interneurones in slices of brain tissue in vitro. In the absence of ATP in the electrode solution, these neurones were found to gradually hyperpolarize through the induction of an outward current at -60 mV. This outward current and the resultant hyperpolarization were blocked by(More)