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Patterns of diversification and timing of evolution within Neoaves, which includes almost 95% of all bird species, are virtually unknown. On the other hand, molecular data consistently indicate a Cretaceous origin of many neoavian lineages and the fossil record seems to support an Early Tertiary diversification. Here, we present the first well-resolved(More)
Obesity is increasing in an epidemic manner in most countries and constitutes a public health problem by enhancing the risk for cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Owing to the increase in obesity, life expectancy may start to decrease in developed countries for the first time in recent history. The factors determining(More)
Many empirical studies have revealed considerable differences between nonparametric bootstrapping and Bayesian posterior probabilities in terms of the support values for branches, despite claimed predictions about their approximate equivalence. We investigated this problem by simulating data, which were then analyzed by maximum likelihood bootstrapping and(More)
A new method, PATHd8, for estimating ultrametric trees from trees with edge (branch) lengths proportional to the number of substitutions is proposed. The method allows for an arbitrary number of reference nodes for time calibration, each defined either as absolute age, minimum age, or maximum age, and the tree need not be fully resolved. The method is based(More)
This paper is a survey paper on stochastic epidemic models. A simple stochastic epidemic model is defined and exact and asymptotic (relying on a large community) properties are presented. The purpose of modelling is illustrated by studying effects of vaccination and also in terms of inference procedures for important parameters, such as the basic(More)
A single-population Markovian stochastic epidemic model is defined so that the underlying social structure of the population is described by a Bernoulli random graph. The parameters of the model govern the rate of infection, the length of the infectious period, and the probability of social contact with another individual in the population. Markov chain(More)
Empirical evidence shows that childhood diseases persist in large communities whereas in smaller communities the epidemic goes extinct (and is later reintroduced by immigration). The present paper treats a stochastic model describing the spread of an infectious disease giving life-long immunity, in a community where individuals die and new individuals are(More)
Consider a random graph, having a pre-specified degree distribution F but other than that being uniformly distributed, describing the social structure (friendship) in a large community. Suppose one individual in the community is externally infected by an infectious disease and that the disease has its course by assuming that infected individuals infect(More)
BACKGROUND Cancer cachexia is an important, negative prognostic marker that has been linked to systemic inflammation and cell death through unclear mechanisms. A key feature of cancer cachexia is loss of white adipose tissue (WAT) because of increased adipocyte lipolysis and possibly reduced lipid synthesis (lipogenesis). In this study, the authors(More)