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Tic110 has been proposed to be a channel-forming protein at the inner envelope of chloroplasts whose function is essential for the import of proteins synthesized in the cytosol. Sequence features and topology determination experiments presently summarized suggest that Tic110 consists of six transmembrane helices. Its topology has been mapped by limited(More)
The miniature viral K+ channel Kcv represents the pore module of all K+ channels. A synthetic gene of Kcv with an elevated GC content compared to that of the wild-type gene was expressed heterologously in Pichia pastoris, and the purified protein was functionally reconstituted into liposomes. Biochemical assays reveal a remarkable cation selective stability(More)
The chloroplast outer envelope protein OEP37 is a member of the growing beta-barrel protein family of the outer chloroplast membrane. The reconstituted recombinant protein OEP37 from pea forms a rectifying high conductance channel with a main conductance (lambda) of Lambda= 500 picosiemens (symmetrical 250 mm KCl). The OEP37 channel is cation-selective(More)
NMDA receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system and play a major role in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging to visualize activation-induced structural changes in the GluN1/GluN2A NMDA receptor reconstituted into a lipid bilayer. In the absence of agonist, AFM imaging(More)
Clostridial neurotoxins reversibly block neuronal communication for weeks and months. While these proteolytic neurotoxins hold great promise for clinical applications and the investigation of brain function, their paralytic activity at neuromuscular junctions is a stumbling block. To redirect the clostridial activity to neuronal populations other than motor(More)
The flux of phosphorylated carbohydrates, the major export products of chloroplasts, is regulated at the level of the inner and presumably also at the level of the outer membrane. This is achieved through modulation of the outer membrane Oep21 channel currents and tuning of its ion selectivity. Refined analysis of the Oep21 channel properties by biochemical(More)
Ionotropic glutamate receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system and play a major role in excitatory synaptic transmission. All three ionotropic glutamate subfamilies (i.e. AMPA-type, kainate-type, and NMDA-type) assemble as tetramers of four homologous subunits. There is good evidence that both heteromeric AMPA and kainate receptors have(More)
Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) plays a key role in sensing environmental hazards and in enhanced pain sensation following inflammation. A considerable proportion of TRPV1-expressing cells also express transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1). There is evidence for a TRPV1-TRPA1(More)
Drug-drug interactions pose a difficult drug safety problem, given the increasing number of individuals taking multiple medications and the relative complexity of assessing the potential for interactions. For example, sofosbuvir-based drug treatments have significantly advanced care for hepatitis C virus-infected patients, yet recent reports suggest(More)
Metabolite, ion and protein translocation into chloroplasts occurs across two membranes, the inner and the outer envelope. Solute and metabolite channels fulfill very important functions in integrating the organelles into the metabolic network of the cell. However so far only a few have been identified. Here we describe the identification and the(More)