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BACKGROUND A wide range of self-directed weight-loss interventions are available, providing users with a variety of tools delivered through various formats to regulate weight-related behavior patterns. However, it is unclear how effective self-directed interventions are and how they promote weight loss and weight maintenance. OBJECTIVE A systematic review(More)
INTRODUCTION There is recent interest surrounding the use of the triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance in clinical practice, as it may identify people at high risk of developing diabetes or its complications. However, it has been suggested using this lipid ratio may not be appropriate for measuring insulin(More)
We estimated the rate of reactivation tuberculosis (TB) in the United States, overall and by population subgroup, using data on TB cases and Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate genotyping reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during 2006-2008. The rate of reactivation TB was defined as the number of non-genotypically clustered TB cases(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess persistence of immunity to hepatitis B (HBV) in primary school children vaccinated following perinatal exposure. DESIGN Serological survey. SETTING Five UK sites (Berkshire East, Birmingham, Buckinghamshire, Milton Keynes and Oxfordshire). PARTICIPANTS Children from 3 years 4 months to 10 years of age (mean age 6.2 years),(More)
TO THE EDITOR—The study by Middel-koop and colleagues [1] combining molecular and traditional epidemiology in a well-defined population is incredibly valuable. We were surprised that the index tuberculosis case patients in clusters had only twice the odds of being negative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), compared with other tuberculosis case(More)
Globally, the rates of decline in tuberculosis (TB) incidence are disappointing, but in line with model predictions regarding the likely impact of the DOTS strategy. Here, we review evidence from basic epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and modelling, all of which suggest that, in high-burden settings, the majority of Mycobacterium tuberculosis(More)
BACKGROUND Modelling studies suggest that workplaces may be important sites of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission in high burden countries today. Contemporary data on tuberculosis by occupation from these settings are scarce. However, historical data on tuberculosis risk in different occupations are available and may provide insight into workplace(More)
SETTING Molecular epidemiology suggests that most Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission in high-burden settings occurs outside the home. OBJECTIVE To estimate the risk of M. tuberculosis transmission inside public buildings in a high TB burden community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. DESIGN Carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors were placed inside eight public(More)