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The cargo that the molecular motor kinesin moves along microtubules has been elusive. We searched for binding partners of the COOH terminus of kinesin light chain, which contains tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs. Three proteins were found, the c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting proteins (JIPs) JIP-1, JIP-2, and JIP-3, which are scaffolding(More)
A conserved heterotrimeric membrane protein complex, the Sec61 or SecY complex, forms a protein-conducting channel, allowing polypeptides to be transferred across or integrated into membranes. We report the crystal structure of the complex from Methanococcus jannaschii at a resolution of 3.2 A. The structure suggests that one copy of the heterotrimer serves(More)
Many misfolded endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins are eliminated by ERAD, a process in which substrates are polyubiquitylated and moved into the cytosol for proteasomal degradation. We have identified in S. cerevisiae distinct ubiquitin-ligase complexes that define different ERAD pathways. Proteins with misfolded ER-luminal domains use the ERAD-L pathway,(More)
SEC61p is essential for protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane of S. cerevisiae. We have found a mammalian homolog that shows more than 50% sequence identity with the yeast protein. Moreover, several regions of SEC61p have significant similarities with corresponding ones of SecYp of bacteria, indicating a strong evolutionary(More)
How is the characteristic shape of a membrane bound organelle achieved? We have used an in vitro system to address the mechanism by which the tubular network of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is generated and maintained. Based on the inhibitory effect of sulfhydryl reagents and antibodies, network formation in vitro requires the integral membrane protein(More)
We have reproduced the process of protein transport across and of protein integration into the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum membrane by the use of proteoliposomes reconstituted from pure phospholipids and purified membrane proteins. The transport of some proteins requires only two membrane protein complexes: the signal recognition particle receptor,(More)
We find that the peripheral ER in Saccharomyces cerevisiae forms a dynamic network of interconnecting membrane tubules throughout the cell cycle, similar to the ER in higher eukaryotes. Maintenance of this network does not require microtubule or actin filaments, but its dynamic behavior is largely dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. We isolated three(More)
Most proteins are secreted from bacteria by the interaction of the cytoplasmic SecA ATPase with a membrane channel, formed by the heterotrimeric SecY complex. Here we report the crystal structure of SecA bound to the SecY complex, with a maximum resolution of 4.5 ångström (A), obtained for components from Thermotoga maritima. One copy of SecA in an(More)
In eukaryotic cells, incorrectly folded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are exported into the cytosol and degraded by the proteasome. This pathway is co-opted by some viruses. For example, the US11 protein of the human cytomegalovirus targets the major histocompatibility complex class I heavy chain for cytosolic degradation. How proteins are(More)
The cotranslational translocation of proteins across the ER membrane involves the tight binding of translating ribosomes to the membrane, presumably to ribosome receptors. The identity of the latter has been controversial. One putative receptor candidate is Sec61 alpha, a multi-spanning membrane protein that is associated with two additional membrane(More)