Tom A Rapoport

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Many misfolded endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins are eliminated by ERAD, a process in which substrates are polyubiquitylated and moved into the cytosol for proteasomal degradation. We have identified in S. cerevisiae distinct ubiquitin-ligase complexes that define different ERAD pathways. Proteins with misfolded ER-luminal domains use the ERAD-L pathway,(More)
How is the characteristic shape of a membrane bound organelle achieved? We have used an in vitro system to address the mechanism by which the tubular network of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is generated and maintained. Based on the inhibitory effect of sulfhydryl reagents and antibodies, network formation in vitro requires the integral membrane protein(More)
In eukaryotic cells, incorrectly folded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are exported into the cytosol and degraded by the proteasome. This pathway is co-opted by some viruses. For example, the US11 protein of the human cytomegalovirus targets the major histocompatibility complex class I heavy chain for cytosolic degradation. How proteins are(More)
The cargo that the molecular motor kinesin moves along microtubules has been elusive. We searched for binding partners of the COOH terminus of kinesin light chain, which contains tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs. Three proteins were found, the c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting proteins (JIPs) JIP-1, JIP-2, and JIP-3, which are scaffolding(More)
The human cytomegalovirus genome encodes proteins that trigger destruction of newly synthesized major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The human cytomegalovirus gene US2 specifies a product capable of dislocating MHC class I molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol and delivering them to the proteasome. This process(More)
Elimination of misfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by retro-translocation is an important physiological adaptation to ER stress. This process requires recognition of a substrate in the ER lumen and its subsequent movement through the membrane by the cytosolic p97 ATPase. Here we identify a p97-interacting membrane protein complex in the(More)
A conserved heterotrimeric membrane protein complex, the Sec61 or SecY complex, forms a protein-conducting channel, allowing polypeptides to be transferred across or integrated into membranes. We report the crystal structure of the complex from Methanococcus jannaschii at a resolution of 3.2 A. The structure suggests that one copy of the heterotrimer serves(More)
We have developed a mathematical theory that describes the regulation of signaling pathways as a function of a limited number of key parameters. Our analysis includes linear kinase-phosphatase cascades, as well as systems containing feedback interactions, crosstalk with other signaling pathways, and/or scaffolding and G proteins. We find that phosphatases(More)
SEC61p is essential for protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane of S. cerevisiae. We have found a mammalian homolog that shows more than 50% sequence identity with the yeast protein. Moreover, several regions of SEC61p have significant similarities with corresponding ones of SecYp of bacteria, indicating a strong evolutionary(More)