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The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway that counteracts variable stresses that impair protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). As such, the UPR is thought to be a homeostat that finely tunes ER protein folding capacity and ER abundance according to need. The mechanism by which the ER stress sensor Ire1 is(More)
Deficiencies in the protein-folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in all eukaryotic cells lead to ER stress and trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress is sensed by Ire1, a transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease, which initiates the non-conventional splicing of the messenger RNA encoding a key transcription activator, Hac1 in(More)
The unfolded protein response (UPR) monitors the protein folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In all organisms analyzed to date, the UPR drives transcriptional programs that allow cells to cope with ER stress. The non-conventional splicing of Hac1 (yeasts) and XBP1 (metazoans) mRNA, encoding orthologous UPR transcription activators, is(More)
It has previously been shown that influenza virus NS1 protein enhances the translation of viral but not cellular mRNAs. This enhancement occurs by increasing the rate of translation initiation and requires the 5'UTR sequence, common to all viral mRNAs. In agreement with these findings, we show here that viral mRNAs, but not cellular mRNAs, are associated(More)
BACKGROUND Previous smallpox ring vaccination models based on contact tracing over a network suggest that ring vaccination would be effective, but have not explicitly included response logistics and limited numbers of vaccinators. METHODS We developed a continuous-time stochastic simulation of smallpox transmission, including network structure,(More)
We investigated cases of shigellosis in San Francisco and Alameda Counties identified during 1996 by active laboratory surveillance to assess the role of HIV infection as a risk factor for shigellosis. Dramatically elevated rates of shigellosis in HIV-infected persons implicate HIV infection as an important risk factor for shigellosis in San Francisco.
BACKGROUND In persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Cryptosporidium parvum causes a prolonged, severe diarrheal illness to which there is no effective treatment, and the risk of developing cryptosporidiosis from drinking tap water in non-outbreak settings remains uncertain. To test the hypothesis that drinking tap water was associated with(More)
BACKGROUND The United States (US) has re-instituted smallpox vaccinations to prepare for an intentional release of the smallpox virus into the civilian population. In an outbreak, people of all ages will be vaccinated. To prepare for the impact of large-scale ring and mass vaccinations, we conducted a systematic review of the complication and mortality(More)
On behalf of the National Biosurveillance Advisory Subcommittee (NBAS) and in keeping with our mandate to ensure that the federal government is enhancing state and local government public health surveillance capability, we are pleased to submit the "Improving the Nation's Ability to Detect and Respond to 21 st Century Urgent Health Threats; Second Report of(More)
A collection of C-terminal deletion mutants of the influenza A virus NS1 gene has been used to define the regions of the NS1 protein involved in its functionality. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that the NS1 protein sequences downstream from position 81 are not required for nuclear transport. The capacity of these mutants to bind RNA was studied by in(More)