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How do neuronal populations in the auditory cortex represent acoustic stimuli? Although sound-evoked neural responses in the anesthetized auditory cortex are mainly transient, recent experiments in the unanesthetized preparation have emphasized subpopulations with other response properties. To quantify the relative contributions of these different(More)
Neural circuits are exquisitely organized, consisting of many different neuronal subpopulations. However, it is difficult to assess the functional roles of these subpopulations using conventional extracellular recording techniques because these techniques do not easily distinguish spikes from different neuronal populations. To overcome this limitation, we(More)
Two recent experimental observations pose a challenge to many cortical models. First, the activity in the auditory cortex is sparse, and firing rates can be described by a lognormal distribution. Second, the distribution of nonzero synaptic strengths between nearby cortical neurons can also be described by a lognormal distribution. Here we use a simple(More)
Electrical microstimulation can establish causal links between the activity of groups of neurons and perceptual and cognitive functions. However, the number and identities of neurons microstimulated, as well as the number of action potentials evoked, are difficult to ascertain. To address these issues we introduced the light-gated algal channel(More)
Since the earliest studies of auditory cortex, it has been clear that an animal's behavioral or attentional state can play a crucial role in shaping the response characteristics of single neurons. Much of what has been learned about attention has been made using human and animal models, but little is known about the cellular and synaptic mechanisms by which(More)
How does auditory cortex represent auditory stimuli, and how do these representations contribute to behavior? Recent experimental evidence suggests that activity in auditory cortex consists of sparse and highly synchronized volleys of activity, observed both in anesthetized and awake animals. Many neurons are capable of remarkably precise activity with very(More)
The dynamics of subthreshold membrane potential provide insight into the organization of activity in neural circuits. In many brain areas, membrane potential is bistable, transiting between a relatively hyperpolarized down state and a depolarized up state. These up and down states, which have been proposed to play a number of computational roles, have(More)
It is unclear why there are so many more neurons in sensory cortex than in the sensory periphery. One possibility is that these "extra" neurons are used to overcome cortical noise and faithfully represent the acoustic stimulus. Another possibility is that even after overcoming cortical noise, there is "excess representational bandwidth" available and that(More)
Exposure to loud sounds damages the auditory periphery and induces maladaptive changes in central parts of the auditory system. Diminished peripheral afferentation and altered inhibition influence the processing of sounds in the auditory cortex. It is unclear, however, which types of inhibitory interneurons are affected by acoustic trauma. Here we used(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Several animal models have been developed in order to test pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease and to predict effects of pharmacological interventions. Here we examine the molecular and behavioral features of R3m/4 transgenic mice expressing human non-mutated truncated(More)