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OBJECTIVE To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A pooled analysis using individual participant data from population-based studies around the world was performed. A systematic literature review was(More)
OBJECTIVE Diabetic maculopathy (DMa) is the most prevalent sight-threatening type of retinopathy in type 2 diabetes and a leading cause of visual loss in the western world. The disease is characterized by hyperpermeability of retinal blood vessels and subsequent formation of hard exudates and macular edema, the degree of which can be estimated by(More)
PURPOSE Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors reduce intraocular pressure, which may protect the optic nerve from ischemia. However, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have also been shown to dilate the blood vessels in the retina and the optic nerve head. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether CO(2), H(+), or factors other than carbonic anhydrase(More)
The influence of perimetric stimulus size on the detection of small scotomata was examined, and the blind spot was used as a paradigm of a small scotoma. A customized point pattern for perimetry was created on a Humphrey field analyzer. The point pattern had a density of 1.4 degrees and was arranged in a grid in the area of the blind spot. Four normal(More)
Aquaporins (AQP) are channels in the cell membrane that mainly facilitate a passive transport of water. In the eye, AQPs are expressed in the ciliary body and retina and may contribute to the pathogenesis of glaucoma and optic neuropathy. We investigated the expression of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP7 and AQP9 in human glaucoma eyes compared with normal(More)
PURPOSE To study the diameter response of retinal arterioles as a function of the arteriolar diameter. METHODS Ten healthy young volunteers aged 22 to 33 years were subjected to diameter measurement of four successive segments of a retinal arteriole with a retinal vessel analyzer (RVA). At each of the segments, the diameter response during an increase in(More)
BACKGROUND In nondiabetic subjects pulse pressure (PP) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and microalbuminuria. Reduced circadian blood pressure (BP) variation is a potential risk factor for the development of diabetic complications. We investigated the association between retinopathy, nephropathy, macrovascular disease, PP, and diurnal(More)
A technique for accurate superimposition of computerized perimetry data onto the corresponding retinal locations seen on fundus photographs was developed. The technique was designed to take into account: 1) that the photographic field of view of the fundus camera varies with ametropia-dependent camera focusing 2) possible distortion by the fundus camera,(More)
PURPOSE To study changes in the spontaneous diameter of small retinal arterioles and bradykinin (BK)-induced vasodilation during inhibition of the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins (PGs), and cytochrome P450 2C8/9-dependent endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). METHODS Forty-eight isolated porcine arterioles with a diameter of(More)
PURPOSE To study the correlation between changes in visual acuity and changes in fixation stability after retinal photocoagulation for diabetic maculopathy. MATERIAL Twenty-four patients with diabetic maculopathy and visual acuity (VA) ranging between 0.05-0.77 were studied at baseline and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after retinal photocoagulation. Fixational(More)