Toivo Halonen

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Spontaneous seizures are the hallmark of human epilepsy but they do not occur in most of the epilepsy models that are used to investigate the mechanisms of epilepsy or to test new antiepileptic compounds. This study was designed to develop a new focal epilepsy model that mimics different aspects of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), including the(More)
The present study was designed to elucidate the distribution, time-course and mechanism(s) of status epilepticus-induced neuronal damage in the rat amygdaloid complex. Status epilepticus was induced with kainate (9 mg/kg, i.p.), and the behavioral and electrographic seizure activity of each rat was monitored via cortical electrodes attached to a continuous(More)
The effect of 12-day intraperitoneal i.p. administration of vigabatrin (GVG, gamma-vinyl GABA) to rats on the neurotransmission-related amino acids in various brain regions (cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and spinal cord), cisternal fluid (CSF) and blood was studied. Results showed that GVG administration increased the levels of GABA in cortical and(More)
The present study compares the efficacy of carbamazepine (20 mg/kg/day) and vigabatrin (250 mg/kg/day) in preventing hippocampal and amygdaloid damage in the perforant pathway stimulation model of status epilepticus in the rat. One group of rats received a combination of the drugs. Drug treatments were started one week before the stimulation and continued(More)
We have studied the role of putrescine by using transgenic mouse lines overexpressing the human ornithine decarboxylase gene in most of their tissues. The aberrant expression of the transgene is most strikingly manifested in the brain, leading to an increase of up to 20-fold in putrescine content. We report that the transgenic mice with grossly elevated(More)
In human epilepsy, the amygdala is often a primary focus for seizures. To analyse the status epilepticus-induced alterations in the amygdaloid circuitries which may later underlie epileptogenesis, we studied the amygdaloid damage in kainic acid and perforant pathway stimulation models of status epilepticus in the rat. We also studied the damage to(More)
Vigabatrin (VGB) treatment is neuroprotective in various models of status epilepticus (SE) and delays the development of kindling via mechanisms that are assumed to relate to the elevation of GABA levels in the brain. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a chronic elevation of brain GABA levels obtained by VGB treatment prevents the development of(More)
We evaluated the effect of initial oxcarbazepine (OXC) monotherapy on memory, attention and simple psychomotor speed in 14 patients; 15 patients with initial phenytoin (PHT) monotherapy served as reference patients. Neuropsychological assessments were performed before starting the treatment and after 6 and 12 months follow-up with steady-state drug(More)
The possible involvement of dopaminergic neurons in dementia of Alzheimer type (AD/SDAT) was studied in autopsied brains from 20 patients with AD/SDAT. Dopamine (DA) concentrations were decreased significantly in the temporal cortex, hippocampal cortex and hippocampus in AD/SDAT patients. Levels of homovanillic acid (HVA) were not altered compared to(More)
The effect of vigabatrin (gamma-vinyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid), a new anticonvulsant drug, on the transmitter amino acids in rat cisternal CSF was studied. CSF was collected through a permanently implanted polyethylene cannula from freely moving rats at 5, 24, 48, and 96 h after administration of 1,000 mg/kg of vigabatrin. The free gamma-aminobutyric acid(More)