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Divergent natural selection acting on ecological traits, which also affect mate choice, is a key element of ecological speciation theory, but has not previously been demonstrated at the molecular gene level to our knowledge. Here we demonstrate parallel evolution in two cichlid genera under strong divergent selection in a gene that affects both. Strong(More)
Rhodopsin is a photoreceptive protein present in vertebrate rod photoreceptor cells, which are responsible for scotopic vision. Recent molecular studies have shown that several aquatic vertebrate species have independently acquired rhodopsin containing Asp83Asn, Glu122Gln, and Ala292Ser substitutions, causing a blue shift in the rhodopsin absorption spectra(More)
In mammals, bitter taste is mediated by T2R genes, which belong to the large family of seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. Because T2Rs are directly involved in the interaction between mammals and their dietary sources, it is likely that these genes evolved to reflect species' specific diets during mammalian evolution. Here, we investigated the(More)
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have region-specific difference in dietary repertoires from East to West across tropical Africa. Such differences may result from different genetic backgrounds in addition to cultural variations. We analyzed the sequences of all bitter taste receptor genes (cTAS2Rs) in a total of 59 chimpanzees, including 4 putative subspecies.(More)
A versatile automated synthesis apparatus, equipped with a chemical artificial intelligence, was developed to prepare and isolate a wide variety of compounds. The apparatus was to the synthesis of substituted N-(carboxyalkyl)amino-acids. The apparatus [1,2] is composed of units for performing various tasks,for example reagent supply, reaction, purification(More)
A fully automated apparatus for the routine synthesis and formulation of short-lived (11)C (t(1/2) = 20 min) labelled radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET) has been developed. [(11)C]Carbon dioxide is converted to [(11)C]methyl iodide, which can be used to label a wide variety of substrates by methylation at C, N, O, or S electron rich(More)
A versatile automated apparatus, equipped with an artificial intelligence has been developed which may be used to prepare and isolate a wide variety of compounds. The prediction of the optimum reaction conditions and the reaction control in real time, are accomplished using novel kinetic equations and substituent effects in an artificial intelligence(More)
This paper describes the development of fully-automated synthesis systems for preparing and isolating various kinds of pharmaceutical compounds. The systems are versatile, and are able to perform most of the chemical reactions currently used in organic chemistry, with the exception of hydrogenation which requires high pressure. An additional benefit is the(More)
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