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Two highly selective mu-opioid receptor agonists, endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2, have been identified and postulated to be endogenous ligands for mu-opioid receptors. Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 at doses from 0.039 to 5 nmol dose-dependently produced antinociception with the paw-withdrawal test. The paw-withdrawal(More)
Intrathecal (i.t.) injection of nociceptin elicited a behavioral response mainly consisting of biting and licking, which were eliminated by the i.t. co-administration of opioid receptor-like-1 (ORL-1) receptor antagonists. The behavioral response induced by nociceptin was characteristically similar to that by i.t.-administered histamine, and was attenuated(More)
Previous research has demonstrated that a high dose of histamine (1600 pmol) injected i.t. in mice can evoke nociceptive behaviors consisting of biting/licking along with occasional scratching. The present study was undertaken to examine the involvement of spinal N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and histamine H(1) and H(2) receptors in the nociceptive behaviors(More)
Intrathecal injection of histamine elicited behavioral responses consisting of scratching, biting and licking in conscious mice. To study the participation of histamine in pain perception, histidine decarboxylase knockout mice were examined for pain threshold by means of three different kinds of noxious stimuli: thermal nociception (hot-plate, tail-flick,(More)
Intrathecal injection of histamine elicited a behavioral response consisting of scratching, biting and licking in conscious mice. Here, we have examined the involvement of substance P (SP) by using intrathecal injection of tachykinin neurokinin (NK)(1) receptor antagonists and SP antiserum. Histamine-induced behavioral response was evoked significantly 5-10(More)
We analyzed spinal metabolic pathway of nociceptin/orphanin FQ related to pain-transmission or modulation in the both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Nociceptin was degraded by spinal synaptic membranes. Major metabolites of nociceptin were free phenylalanine, nociceptin (1-13) and nociceptin (14-17). Both the degradation of nociceptin and the(More)
We previously reported that histamine H(1) receptor gene knockout mice (H1KO) showed lower spontaneous nociceptive threshold to pain stimuli when compared to wild-type mice. The objective of the present study was to examine the antinociceptive effect of intrathecally-administered morphine in H1KO mice. The antinociceptive effects of morphine were examined(More)
Intrathecal (i.t.) injection of histamine elicited a significant hyperalgesic response as assayed by the tail-flick test. This hyperalgesic effect peaked at 15 min following i.t. administration of histamine (800 pmol) and returned to control level with 30 min. Hyperalgesia produced by histamine was inhibited dose-dependently by i.t. co-administration of the(More)
Tebanicline (ABT-594), an analogue of epibatidine, exhibits potent antinociceptive effects and high affinity for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the central nervous system. We assessed whether tebanicline exerts an effect on various noxious stimuli and mediates the nicotine receptor or opioid receptor through stimulation. The antinociceptive effects(More)
The involvement of spinal glial cells in the nociceptive behaviors induced by 1600 pmol of histamine was determined in mice. Histamine injected intrathecally (i.t.) produced nociceptive behaviors, consisting of scratching, biting and licking. The nociceptive behaviors induced by histamine were significantly suppressed by i.t. pretreatment with the glial(More)