Tohru Marunouchi

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Stimulation of mouse astrocytes and microglia in enriched culture by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in the production of a cytotoxic factor that is functionally similar to macrophage-derived tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). This cytotoxic factor kills murine L929 cells, and is neutralized by a monoclonal anti-mouse TNF. The production of this factor is(More)
In the mammalian testis, spermatogenesis is initiated from a subset of stem cells belonging to undifferentiated type A spermatogonia. In spite of the biologic significance of undifferentiated type A spermatogonia, little is known about their behavior and properties because of a lack of specific cell surface markers. Here we show that CDH1 (previously known(More)
Microglia, macrophage-like cells in the CNS, are multifunctional cells; they play an important role in removal of dead cells or their remnants by phagocytosis in the CNS degeneration and are one of important cells in the CNS cytokine network to produce and respond to a variety of cytokines. The functions of microglia are regulated by inhibitory cytokines.(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been shown to be produced in the central nervous system (CNS). The functions of TGF-beta, however, remain to be elucidated. We investigated the effects of TGF-beta on the proliferation, activation, and cytokine production of isolated microglia in vitro. TGF-beta dose-dependently suppressed the acid phosphatase(More)
NZF-2 (MyT1) is a member of C2HC-type zinc finger transcription factors. A novel form of mouse NZF-2 has been isolated. This novel form, NZF-2b, has an additional C2HC-type zinc finger motif. The expression levels of NZF-2b are by far the more predominant than those of the already known form of NZF-2. In embryonic mouse nervous system, the expression of(More)
Renal enlargement in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is caused by the proliferation of mural epithelial cells and transepithelial fluid secretion into the cavities of innumerable cysts. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) stimulates the proliferation of human PKD cells in vitro via cAMP-dependent activation of the B-Raf/MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase/extracellular(More)
BACKGROUND Embryonic stem (ES) cells, bone marrow, adipose tissue or other genetically modified stem cells are being widely used in basic research in the field of regenerative medicine. However, there is no specific surface antigen that can be used as a marker of multipotent stem cells. OBJECTIVE We tried to isolate and collect putative multipotent stem(More)
In this study, we examined the production of IL-10 by glial cells in vitro. IL-10 was detected in the culture supernatants of microglia and in the cell lysate of astrocytes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also detected IL-10 mRNA and IL-10 receptor mRNA in both microglia and astrocytes. The expression of IL-10 mRNA, as well as the production of(More)
Notch family molecules are thought to be negative regulators of neuronal differentiation in early brain development. After expression in the embryonic period, Notch2 continues to be expressed postnatally in the specific regions in the rodent brain. Here, we examined Notch2 expression in the postnatal mouse brain using lacZ knockin animals at the Notch2(More)
PTPzeta/RPTPbeta, a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase synthesized as a chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycan, uses a heparin-binding growth factor pleiotrophin (PTN) as a ligand, in which the CS portion plays an essential role in ligand binding. Using an organotypic slice culture system, we tested the hypothesis that PTN-PTPzeta signaling is(More)