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Signaling pathways that link extracellular factors to activation of the monomeric guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rho control cytoskeletal rearrangements and cell growth. Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) participate in several of these pathways, although their mechanisms are unclear. The GTPase activities of two G protein(More)
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) plays a key role in the desensitization of G protein-coupled receptor signaling by phosphorylating activated heptahelical receptors and by sequestering heterotrimeric G proteins. We report the atomic structure of GRK2 in complex with Galphaq and Gbetagamma, in which the activated Galpha subunit of Gq is fully(More)
Members of the regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) family stimulate the intrinsic guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity of the alpha subunits of certain heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rho, p115 RhoGEF, has an amino-terminal region with similarity to RGS proteins.(More)
Heterotrimeric G proteins and protein kinase A (PKA) are two important transmitters that transfer signals from a wide variety of cell surface receptors to generate physiological responses. The established mechanism of PKA activation involves the activation of the Gs-cAMP pathway. Binding of cAMP to the regulatory subunit of PKA (rPKA) leads to a release and(More)
Heterotrimeric guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) transduce signals from a wide variety of cell-surface receptors to generate physiological responses. Protein-tyrosine kinases are another group of critical cellular signal transducers and their malfunction often leads to cancer. Although activation of G-protein-coupled receptors can(More)
Certain transmitters inhibit Kir3 (GIRK) channels, resulting in neuronal excitation. We analysed signalling mechanisms for substance P (SP)-induced Kir3 inhibition in relation to the role of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)). SP rapidly - with a half-time of approximately 10 s with intracellular GTPgammaS and approximately 14 s with(More)
Transmembrane signals initiated by a broad range of extracellular stimuli converge on nodes that regulate phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent inositol lipid hydrolysis for signal propagation. We describe how heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) activate PLC-βs and in turn are deactivated by these downstream effectors. The 2.7-angstrom(More)
Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) phosphorylates AGC protein kinases including protein kinase C (PKC) and regulates cellular functions such as cell migration. However, its regulation remains poorly understood. Here we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) induces two phases of PKC-δ hydrophobic motif phosphorylation. The late phase is(More)
Activation of substance P receptors, which are coupled to Galpha(q), inhibits the Kir3.1/3.2 channels, resulting in neuronal excitation. We have shown previously that this channel inactivation is not caused by reduction of the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate level in membrane. Moreover, Galpha(q) immunoprecipitates with Kir3.2 (J Physiol 564:489-500,(More)
1. Substance P (SP) induces a slow neuronal excitation in cholinergic neurons from the nucleus basalis by suppressing an inwardly rectifying K+ current (Kir). We have determined which G protein alpha-subunit mediates this SP effect. 2. After intracellularly injecting antibody against each alpha-subunit of G proteins (Gq alpha/11 alpha, G12 alpha, and G13(More)