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The tumor microenvironment is a complex and heterogeneous milieu in which multiple interactions occur between tumor and host cells. Immunosuppressive cells which are present in this microenvironment, such as regulatory T (Treg) cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), play an important role in tumor progression, via down-regulation of antitumor(More)
Drug resistance remains one of the major reasons of therapy failure in gastric cancer patients. Although the mechanisms of anticancer drug resistance have been broadly investigated, they have not been completely understood. Accumulating reports have recently highlighted the involvement of endogenous non-coding RNAs, known as microRNAs, in the evolution of(More)
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a member of the common γ-chain cytokines with broad pleiotropic actions that affects different immune and nonimmune cells. IL-21 can affect differentiation, proliferation and function of T and B cells; it can also induce the maturation and enhance the cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells and Natural killer (NK) cells. IL-21 exerts major(More)
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory neurodegenerative disease of central nervous system (CNS). Although the main cause of MS is not clear, studies suggest that MS is an autoimmune disease which attacks myelin sheath of neurons. There are different therapeutic regimens for MS patients including interferon (IFN)-β, glatiramer acetate (GA), and(More)
BACKGROUND Behcet's Disease (BD) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, principally characterized by relapsing periods of a broad range of clinical symptoms. Cytokines play fundamental roles in the pathogenesis of BD. Polymorphisms within cytokine genes have been found to play a pathogenic role in the development of(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the Central Nervous System that is immunologically mediated in genetically susceptible individuals. IL-21, a cytokine produced by TCD4(+) cells, particularly by Th-17 cells, is believed to play an important role in the MS pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE This study was performed(More)
Interleukin-13 (IL-13) as a pleiotropic cytokine acts through the IL-13Ra1/IL-4Ra complex to induce activation responses which contribute to the inflammatory diseases. Genetic polymorphisms in IL-13 and its receptor components have been proved to be associated with higher disease prevalence rates. Animal models such as in IL-13 deficient mice and transgenic(More)
Recent genome-wide association studies have documented a number of genetic variants to explain mechanisms underlying autoimmune diseases. However, the precise etiology of autoimmune diseases remains largely unknown. Epigenetic mechanisms like alterations in the post-translational modification of histones and DNA methylation may potentially cause a breakdown(More)
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